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All About Greek Pronouns: Ultimate Greek Pronouns List

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Pronouns are such useful little words! They normally substitute nouns, making written and verbal language less boring by enhancing their flow. 

If we could choose one thing to begin studying when you first start learning any new language, it would probably be its pronouns. They’re so useful that you’d find it difficult to construct a full sentence in any language without using them. 

In Greek, as in English, the pronouns are divided into various categories. So, in this article, we’ll demonstrate all the tips and tricks about personal, demonstrative, interrogative, and indefinite Greek pronouns, setting the base for your further studies.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Greek Table of Contents
  1. Personal Pronouns in Greek
  2. Demonstrative Pronouns in Greek
  3. Interrogative Pronouns in Greek
  4. Indefinite Pronouns in Greek
  5. Relative Pronouns in Greek
  6. Conclusion

1. Personal Pronouns in Greek

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Image Description: An owl pointing at another owl

One of the first things you need to know when you begin studying the Greek language is the use of Greek personal pronouns. From a syntax perspective, personal pronouns are most commonly used as a subject or an object within a sentence. Therefore, it’s almost impossible to engage in a simple dialogue without them.

Let’s have a look at some Greek pronouns in the nominative case, which can be used as a subject within a sentence.

  • εγώ (egó) — “I”
  • εσύ (esí) — “you”
  • αυτός (aftós) — “he”
  • αυτή (aftí) — “she”
  • αυτό (aftó) — “it”
  • εμείς (emís) — “we”
  • εσείς (esís) — “you”
  • αυτοί (aftí) — “they” (masculine)
  • αυτές (aftés) — “they” (feminine)
  • αυτά (aftá) — “they” (neutral)

As you might have noticed, there are three different third-person forms of the personal pronoun in plural, according to the gender of the name or noun that’s substituted. Indeed, when the word that’s substituted is masculine, for example άνδρες (ándres), meaning men, then αυτοί should be used. Similarly, when the word is feminine, for example γυναίκες (ginékes), meaning “women,” then αυτές should be used. Last, but not least, when the word is neutral, for example παιδιά (pediá), meaning “children,” then αυτά should be used.

Now, let’s study some more-complex example sentences, which demonstrate the use of Greek personal pronouns in the nominative case.

Examples:

Greek: Εμείς μένουμε στο ξενοδοχείο, Ελένη. Εσείς που μένετε;

Romanization: Emís ménume sto xenodohío, Eléni. Esís pu ménete?

Translation: “We are staying at the hotel, Eleni. Where are you staying?”

Greek: Αυτοί θέλουν να πάνε σε μια ταβέρνα, όμως εμείς θέλουμε να πάμε για μπάνιο.

Romanization: Aftí thélun na páne se mia tavérna, ómos emís thélume na páme ya bánio.

Translation: “They want to go to a restaurant, but we want to go swimming.”

Greek: Τα παιδιά φορούσαν ελληνικές παραδοσιακές στολές και χόρευαν. Αυτά φαίνονταν πολύ χαρούμενα.

Romanization: Ta pediá forúsan ellinikés paradosiakés stolés ke hórevan. Aftá fénodan polí harúmena.

Translation: “Children were wearing traditional Greek suits and were dancing. They seemed very happy.”

Note that in sentences like in the example above, the pronoun Αυτά (Aftá) can also be omitted when it’s understood by the context whom we’re talking about. While in English, it’s indispensable to use the pronoun “they,” in Greek, it can be omitted. This is because the form of the verb indicates what person we’re talking about, in this case the third-person plural.

A characteristic of these pronouns is that they can stand alone in speech, just like in the second sentence of the following example.

Greek: 

  • Ποιος θα πάει να φέρει ψωμί; 
  • Εγώ.

Romanization: 

  • Pios tha pái na féri psomí? 
  • Egó.

Translation: 

  • “Who’s going to get some bread?” 
  • “I will.”
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Now, what happens when we need to use these personal pronouns as the object of a verb within a sentence? The answer lies below, where the Greek personal pronouns are demonstrated in the objective cases, that is the accusative case (used more often for objects) and the genitive case (used less often for objects) accordingly.

  • εμένα (eména) — “me” in both cases
  • εσένα (eséna) — “you” in both cases
  • αυτόν (aftón) / αυτού (aftú) — “him”
  • αυτή(ν) (aftí(n)) / αυτής (aftís) — “her”
  • αυτό (aftó) / αυτού (aftú) — “it”
  • εμάς (emás) — “us” in both cases
  • εσάς (esás) — “you” in both cases
  • αυτούς (aftús) / αυτών (aftón) — “them” (masculine)
  • αυτές (aftés) / αυτών (aftón) — “them” (feminine)
  • αυτά (aftá) / αυτών (aftón) — “them” (neutral)

Examples: 

Greek: Η γυναίκα είπε αυτής να φύγει.

Romanization: I yinéka ípe aftís na fíyi.

Translation: “The woman told her to leave.”

Greek: Μην ακούς αυτούς. Εμένα να ακούς.

Romanization: Min akús aftús. Eména na akús.

Translation: “Don’t listen to them. Listen to me.”

Greek: Ο διευθυντής επέλεξε εμένα, για να κάνω αυτή τη δουλειά.

Romanization: O diefthindís epélexe eména, ya na káno aftí ti duliá.

Translation: “The director chose me to do this job.”

Greek: Ποιον επέλεξε; Εμένα.

Romanization: Pion epélexe? Eména.

Translation: “Whom did he choose? Me.”

As you can see in the second sentence of the last example, these pronouns can also stand alone in speech. The forms of the personal pronouns that we saw are called “strong” forms for that reason—they’re strong enough to maintain themselves alone in a sentence. They’re also called “emphatic,” as they’re used to emphasize a specific person as opposed to someone else. (“He chose me. Not someone else.”)

You might be wondering that since there are strong forms of the Greek personal pronouns, there might be “weak” forms as well. Well, there are, and these are used more often in speech but never alone; they need a verb to sustain themselves. In the accusative and genitive cases respectively, those are:

  • με (me) / μου (mu) — “me”
  • σε (se) / σου (su) — “you”
  • τον (ton) / του (tu) — “him”
  • τη(ν) (tin(n)) / της (tis) — “her”
  • το (to) / του (tu) — “it”
  • μας (mas) / μας (mas) — “us”
  • σας (sas) / σας (sas) — “you”
  • τους (tus) / τους (tus) — “them”
  • τις  or τες* (tis or tes) / τους (tus) — “them”
  • τα (ta) / τους (tus) — “them”


* τις is used before a verb, τες after a verb.

Greek: Σε βλέπω!

Romanization: Se vlépo!

Translation: “I see you!”

Greek: Της μιλάει.

Romanization: Tis milái.

Translation: “He is talking to her.”

However, what happens when we need to express possession? Then, we use the above weak personal pronouns in the genitive case to create Greek possessive pronouns:

Greek: Το φαγητό μου.

Romanization: To fayitó mu.

Translation: “My food.”

Greek: Αυτό είναι το σπίτι σας.

Romanization: Aftó íne to spíti sas.

Translation: “This is your house.”

To make these weak possessive forms strong and emphatic so they can stand alone in speech, we need to add the adjective δικός / -ή / -ό (dikós / -í / -ó) in front of them in the masculine, feminine, and neuter gender respectively. This depends on the gender of the person, animal, or thing that we’re talking about.

  • (δικός / -ή / -ό) μου (dikós / -í / -ó mu) — “my” (weak) / “mine” (strong)
  • (δικός / -ή / -ό) σου (dikós / -í / -ó su) — “your” (weak) / “yours”
  • (δικός / -ή / -ό) του (dikós / -í / -ó tu) — “his” (weak and strong)
  • (δικός / -ή / -ό) της (dikós / -í / -ó tis) — “her” (weak) / “hers” (strong)
  • (δικός / -ή / -ό) του (dikós / -í / -ó tu) — “its” (weak and strong)
  • (δικός / -ή / -ό) μας (dikós / -í / -ó mas) — “our” (weak) / “ours” (strong)
  • (δικός / -ή / -ό) σας (dikós / -í / -ó sas) — “your” (weak) / “yours” (strong)
  • (δικός / -ή / -ό) τους (dikós / -í / -ó tus) — “their” (weak) / “theirs” (strong)

Compare the following examples with the two previous ones to understand their exact use and differences.

Greek: Το φαγητό είναι δικό μου.

Romanization: To fayitó íne dikó mu.

Translation: “The food is mine.” (and no one else’s, emphatic)

Greek: Αυτό το σπίτι είναι δικό σας.

Romanization: Aftó to spíti íne dikó sas.

Translation: “This house is yours.” (it doesn’t belong to anyone else, emphatic)

It’s pretty clear, right? Mind, however, the following two examples:

Greek: Το δικό μου φαγητό είναι ανάλατο.

Romanization: To dikó mu fayitó íne análato.

Translation: “My food is unsalted.” (my food as opposed to someone else’s, emphatic)

Greek: Το δικό σας σπίτι είναι πολύ καθαρό.

Romanization: To dikó sas spíti íne polí katharó.

Translation: “Your house is very clean.” (your house as opposed to someone else’s, emphatic)

When the strong possessive pronoun goes before the noun, it’s translated using the weak English possessive pronoun.

2. Demonstrative Pronouns in Greek

A Finger Pointing at Something

Pointing at an object by extending your index is totally fine in Greece as a gesture. However, when it comes to pointing at people, it’s considered rude, and you should probably avoid this. If you’re into learning more about gestures in Greek culture, you can read our related article.

Here are some useful Greek demonstrative pronouns:

  • Greek: αυτός (masculine); αυτή (feminine); αυτό (neutral)
  • Romanization: aftós; aftí; aftó
  • Translation: “this”
  • Greek: αυτοί (masculine plural); αυτές (feminine plural); αυτά (neutral plural)
  • Romanization: aftí; aftés; aftá
  • Translation: “these”
  • Greek: εκείνος (masculine); εκείνη (feminine); εκείνο (neutral)
  • Romanization: ekínos; ekíni; ekíno
  • Translation: “that”
  • Greek: εκείνοι (masculine plural); εκείνες (feminine plural); εκείνα (neutral plural)
  • Romanization: ekíni; ekínes; ekína
  • Translation: “those”

Example:

Greek: Αυτός ο δάσκαλος φαίνεται πολύ αυστηρός, ενώ εκείνη η δασκάλα είναι πολύ γλυκιά.

Romanization: Aftós o dáskalos fénete polí afstirós, enó ekíni i daskála íne polí glikiá.

Translation: “This (male) teacher seems very strict, whereas that (female) teacher is very sweet.”

3. Interrogative Pronouns in Greek

Basic Questions

Almost every question includes an interrogative word. This statement alone highlights the importance of interrogative pronouns, not only in Greek, but in every language. The use of Greek interrogative pronouns is quite similar to the use of their English equivalents in terms of syntax and grammar.

Let’s begin with the basics.

  • Greek: Τι;
  • Romanization: Ti?
  • Translation: “What?”

Examples: 

Greek: Τι είναι αυτό εκεί;

Romanization: Ti íne aftó ekí?

Translation: “What is that over there?”

Greek: Τι συμβαίνει;

Romanization: Ti simvéni?

Translation: “What is going on?”

However, if you had to choose from a variety of objects, you would use “which,” right? Here is its Greek equivalent. 

  • Greek: Ποιο;
  • Romanization: Pio?
  • Translation: “Which?”

Example: 

Greek: Ποιο παντελόνι μου πηγαίνει καλύτερα;

Romanization: Pio pandelóni mu piyéni kalítera?

Translation: “Which trousers suit me better?”

A slight change is observed when asking “who.” In Greek, there are two forms, one for men and one for women. The one you use depends on the gender of the corresponding noun or name.

  • Greek: Ποιος (masculine) / Ποια (feminine);
  • Romanization: Pios / Pia?
  • Translation: “Who?”

Example: 

Greek: Ποιος μπορεί να με βοηθήσει;

Romanization: Pios borí na me voithísi?

Translation: “Who can help me?”

When asking a general question, the masculine form is preferred, as shown in the example above. In this case, the answer is either a woman or a man.

  • Greek: Ποιου/Ποιανού (masculine & neutral) / Ποιας/Ποιανής (feminine);
  • Romanization: Piu/Pianú / Pias/Pianís ?
  • Translation: “Whose…?”

So, this part might be a bit tricky. When referring to the interrogative pronoun “whose” in Greek, there are two types that can be used. The first one (ποιου, ποιας) is the more formal type, whereas the second one (ποιανού, ποιανής) is an informal type that’s mainly used in oral speech. Both types are correct and can be used interchangeably based on the occasion. Let’s have a look at some examples below.

Greek: Ποιου/Ποιανού είναι αυτό το παντελόνι;

Romanization: Piu/Pianú íne aftó to padelóni?

Translation: “Whose trousers are these?”

In questions like this one, we use the generic masculine type (ποιου, ποιανού), regardless of whether the answer refers to a male or a female. Therefore, “these trousers” could belong to either a man or a woman. 

Another important note on the above example, which isn’t related to pronouns, is that the word παντελόνι in Greek is singular, although in English it’s plural.

  • Greek: Ποιον (masculine) / Ποια (feminine);
  • Romanization: Pion / Pia ?
  • Translation: “Whom…?”

Greek: Σε ποιον θέλεις να αναθέσεις αυτήν την εργασία;

Romanization: Se pion thélis na anathésis aftín tin ergasía?

Translation: “To whom would you like to assign this?”

Again, in this case, the masculine form is used as a generic form.

4. Indefinite Pronouns in Greek

Two Girls Holding a Notebook

Now, here’s a quick list of Greek indefinite pronouns you can use when you don’t need to be very specific. 

  • Greek: κάποιος
  • Romanization: kápios
  • Translation: “someone” (masculine)
  • Greek: κάποια
  • Romanization: kápia
  • Translation: “someone” (feminine)
  • Greek: κάποιο
  • Romanization: kápio
  • Translation: “someone” / “something” (neutral)
  • Greek: κάτι
  • Romanization: káti
  • Translation: “something”

Example: 

Greek: Κάποιος πρέπει να κάνει κάτι.

Romanization: Kápios prépi na káni káti.

Translation: “Someone has to do something.”

  • Greek: κανείς / κανένας
  • Romanization: kanís / kanénas
  • Translation: “no one” / “nobody” (masculine)
  • Greek: καμιά / καμία
  • Romanization: kamiá / kamía
  • Translation: “nobody” (feminine)
  • Greek: κανένα
  • Romanization: kanéna
  • Translation: “nobody” (neutral)

Example:

Greek: Κανένας άνδρας, καμία γυναίκα και κανένα παιδί δεν πρέπει να πεινούν.

Romanization: Kanénas ándras, kamía yinéka ke kanéna pedí den prépi na pinún.

Translation: “No man, no woman, and no child should be left starving.”

  • Greek: τίποτα
  • Romanization: típota
  • Translation: “nothing,” “anything,” “something,” “any”

Example:

Greek: Δεν θέλει τίποτα.

Romanization: Den théli típota.

Translation: “He doesn’t want anything.”

5. Relative Pronouns in Greek

Again, in the case of Greek relative pronouns, there’s a distinction when it comes to different genders. 

  • Greek: ο οποίος
  • Romanization: o opíos
  • Translation: “who” (masculine)

Example: 

Greek: Αυτός είναι ο άνδρας ο οποίος με βοήθησε να κουβαλήσω τη βαλίτσα μου.

Romanization: Aftós íne o ándras o opíos me voíthise na kuvalíso ti valítsa mu.

Translation: “This is the man who helped me carry my suitcase.”

  • Greek: η οποία
  • Romanization: i opía
  • Translation: “who” (feminine)

Example: 

Greek: Η Μαρία είναι κοπέλα η οποία δουλεύει στο ξενοδοχείο.

Romanization: I María íne i kopéla i opía dulévi sto xenodohío.

Translation: “Maria is the girl who works at the hotel.”

  • Greek: το οποίο
  • Romanization: to opío
  • Translation: “whο” (neutral) / “which”

Examples:

Greek: Αυτό είναι το παιδί το οποίο γλίστρησε και χτύπησε στην παιδική χαρά.

Romanization: Aftó íne to pedí, to opío glístrise ke htípise stin pedikí hará.

Translation: “This is the child who slipped and fell over at the playground.”

Greek: Αυτό είναι το σπίτι το οποίο είχαμε νοικιάσει πέρυσι.

Romanization: Aftó íne to spíti, to opío íhame nikiási périsi.

Translation: “This is the house which we rented last year.”

Feeling a bit confused? 

Not sure which type you should use in each case?

We’ve got the solution for you: The magic word is που (pu), which means “that,” and is often used to substitute ο οποίος / η οποία / το οποίο, offering the advantage that it doesn’t change according to the gender of the noun.

  • Greek: που
  • Romanization: pu
  • Translation: “that” (for all genders)

Now, let’s adjust the above examples by using the word που. 

Greek: Αυτός είναι ο άνδρας που με βοήθησε να κουβαλήσω τη βαλίτσα μου.

Romanization: Aftós íne o ándras pu me voíthise na kuvalíso ti valítsa mu.

Translation: “This is the man that helped me carry my suitcase.”

Greek: Η Μαρία είναι κοπέλα που δουλεύει στο ξενοδοχείο.

Romanization: I María íne i kopéla pu dulévi sto xenodohío.

Translation: “Maria is the girl that works at the hotel.”

Greek: Αυτό είναι το παιδί που γλίστρησε και χτύπησε στην παιδική χαρά.

Romanization: Aftó íne to pedí pu glístrise ke htípise stin pedikí hará.

Translation: “This is the child that slipped and fell over at the playground.”

Greek: Αυτό είναι το σπίτι που είχαμε νοικιάσει πέρυσι.

Romanization: Aftó íne to spíti pu íhame nikiási périsi.

Translation: “This is the house that we rented last year.”

And here are some more Greek relative pronouns: 

  • Greek: οποιοσδήποτε
  • Romanization: opiosdípote
  • Translation: “anyone” (masculine)
  • Greek: οποιαδήποτε
  • Romanization: opiadípote
  • Translation: “anyone” (feminine)
  • Greek: οποιοδήποτε
  • Romanization: opiodípote
  • Translation: “anyone” (neutral)
  • Greek: οτιδήποτε
  • Romanization: otidípote
  • Translation: “anything”

6. Conclusion

Improve Listening

Greek pronouns are part of the core of the language. By learning them, you’ll definitely find it easier to express yourself in Greek and you’ll be able to construct meaningful sentences in no time. 

So, what else will you probably need in order to enhance your vocabulary? Nouns and adjectives, of course. We’ve got you covered on this, as well. Just take a look at our Greek Nouns and Greek Adjectives articles and learn everything you need to know.

Did our Greek language pronouns guide help you out? Is there a pronoun that troubles you, or one we forgot?

Let us know in the comments section below!

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