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Negation in Greek: How to Create Negative Sentences

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Ever wondered how to use negation in Greek to create negative sentences?

Then you’re in the right place!

If you prefer expressing your opposition verbally (instead of nodding, for instance), then continue reading.

In this blog post, we’ll focus on negation in Greek and show you how to turn an affirmative sentence into a negative one. In addition, we’ll present you with the most common negation words and phrases, as well as the most popular ways to give a negative response to a question.

Are you ready?

Let’s get started!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Greek Table of Contents
  1. Turning an Affirmative Sentence into a Negative Sentence
  2. Giving a Negative Response to a Question
  3. Negation Words and Phrases
  4. Double Negatives
  5. Conclusion

1. Turning an Affirmative Sentence into a Negative Sentence

A Woman in a Classroom Writing in Her Notebook

Rumor has it that Greek negation is one of the easiest parts of the language to learn. 

Modifying an affirmative sentence to have a negative meaning can be achieved by simply adding the particle δεν (den) – not before the verb in the indicative mood.

Here are some typical examples:

Affirmative SentenceNegative Sentence
  • Greek: Εγώ κάνω γυμναστική.
  • Romanization: Egó káno yimnastikí
  • Translation: “I exercise.”
  • Greek: Εγώ δεν κάνω γυμναστική.
  • Romanization: Egó den káno yimnastikí
  • Translation: “I don’t exercise.”

Affirmative SentenceNegative Sentence
  • Greek: Η Μαρία διαβάζει κάθε μέρα.
  • Romanization: I María diavázi káthe méra.
  • Translation: “Maria studies every day.”
  • Greek: Η Μαρία δεν διαβάζει κάθε μέρα.
  • Romanization: I María den diavázi káthe méra.
  • Translation: “Maria doesn’t study every day.”

Affirmative SentenceNegative Sentence
  • Greek: Θέλω να επισκεφτώ την Ελλάδα.
  • Romanization: Thélo na episkeftó tin Elláda..
  • Translation: “I want to visit Greece.”
  • Greek: Δεν θέλω να επισκεφτώ την Ελλάδα.
  • Romanization: Den thélo na episkeftó tin Eláda.
  • Translation: “I don’t want to visit Greece.”

When it comes to complex sentences, consisting of two or more clauses connected by the conjunction και (ke) – “and,” the particle “δεν” should be placed before each verb. In that way, you can negate the meaning of both sentences.

Affirmative SentenceNegative Sentence
  • Greek: Χθες πήγαμε σινεμά και φάγαμε ποπκόρν.
  • Romanization: Htes pígame sinemá ke fágame popkórn.
  • Translation: “Yesterday, we went to the cinema and we ate popcorn.”
  • Greek: Χθες δεν πήγαμε σινεμά και δεν φάγαμε ποπκόρν.
  • Romanization: Htes den pígame sinemá ke den fágame popkórn.
  • Translation: “Yesterday, we didn’t go to the cinema and we didn’t eat popcorn.”

However, in cases like this, you may want to negate only the first or second statement. The solution is simple: Just place a “δεν” before the verb you want to negate. 

Negating the 1st StatementNegating the 2nd Statement
  • Greek: Χθες δεν πήγαμε σινεμά και φάγαμε ποπ κορν.
  • Romanization: Htes den pígame sinemá ke fágame pop korn.
  • Translation: “Yesterday, we didn’t go to the cinema and we ate popcorn.”
  • Greek: Χθες πήγαμε σινεμά και δεν φάγαμε ποπ κορν.
  • Romanization: Htes den pígame sinemá ke den fágame pop korn.
  • Translation: “Yesterday, we went to the cinema and we didn’t eat popcorn.”

2. Giving a Negative Response to a Question

A Woman Gesturing in a Negative Way

Saying no every once in a while is not a bad thing. Therefore, when you need to answer “no” to a yes-or-no question, you can simply say: 

  • Greek: Όχι.
  • Romanization: Óhi.
  • Translation: “No.”

Here’s an example: 

Greek– Θέλεις να πάμε για καφέ;
– Όχι.
Romanization– Τhélis na páme yia kafé?             
– Óhi.
Translation– “Do you want to go for a coffee?”             
– “No.”

Or if you want to be more polite, you may add the verb ευχαριστώ (efharistó) – “to thank” at the end of your response.

Greek– Θέλεις να σου φτιάξω έναν καφέ;
– Όχι, ευχαριστώ.
Romanization– Τhélis na su ftiáxo énan kafé?             
– Óhi, efharistó.
Translation– “Do you want me to make you some coffee?”             
– “No, thank you.”

Moreover, you can also repeat the verb or the statement of the question using negation instead of a simple “όχι” answer.

Greek– Είναι αυτό δικό σου;
– Όχι, δεν είναι.
Romanization– Íne aftó dikó su?
– Óhi, den íne.
Translation– “Is this yours?”
– “No, it isn’t.”

3. Negation Words and Phrases

You can also make a sentence negative in Greek by using certain words and phrases. In this section, we’ll take a look at some of the most common Greek negation words and phrases, along with examples. These words are normally used in combination with “δεν,” resulting in a sentence with double negatives (which we’ll discuss in the next section of this blog post).

A Girl in Winter Clothes Raising Her Hand to the Camera Indicating She Doesn’t Want to be Photographed
  • Greek: ποτέ
  • Romanization: poté
  • Translation: “never”

Greek              Δεν έχω πάει ποτέ στην Ελλάδα.
Romanization              Den ého pái poté stin Elláda.
Translation              “I have never been to Greece.” 

  • Greek: πουθενά
  • Romanization: pouthená
  • Translation: “nowhere”

Greek              Χθες έβρεχε και δεν πήγαμε πουθενά.
Romanization              Hthes évrehe ke den pígame puthená.
Translation              “Yesterday, it was raining and we didn’t go anywhere.” 

  • Greek: κανείς
  • Romanization: kanís
  • Translation: “nobody”

Greek              Κανείς δεν ήρθε στα γενέθλιά μου.
Romanization              Kanís den írthe sta yenéthliá mu.
Translation              “Nobody came on my birthday.” 

  • Greek: τίποτα
  • Romanization: típota
  • Translation: “nothing”

Greek              Τίποτα δεν θα μας χωρίσει.
Romanization              Típota den tha mas horísi.
Translation              “Nothing will tear us apart.” 

  • Greek: ούτε…ούτε
  • Romanization: úte…úte
  • Translation: “neither…nor”

Greek              Δεν μου αρέσει ούτε το κρασί, ούτε η μπύρα.
Romanization              Den mu arési úte to krasí, úte i bíra. 
Translation              “I like neither wine, nor beer.” 

Last, but not least, we couldn’t omit negative commands. Since the imperative mood in Greek (which is the mood that expresses commands) doesn’t have its own negation form, it uses the negation form of the subjunctive mood: the following particle + the verb in the subjunctive mood.

  • Greek: μη(ν)
  • Romanization: mi(n)
  • Translation: “don’t”

Greek              Η μαμά κοιμάται. Μη φωνάζεις!
Romanization              I mamá kimáte. Mi fonázis!.
Translation              “Mommy is sleeping. Don’t yell.” 

If you want to sound more polite, then simply add the verb παρακαλώ (parakaló) – “please” at the end of the negative command. 

Greek              Έχω πονοκέφαλο. Μη μιλάς δυνατά, παρακαλώ.
Romanization              Ého ponokéfalo. Mi milás dinatá, parakaló.
Translation              “I’ve got a headache. Please, don’t speak loudly.” 

“Μην” can be combined with verbs (as we saw) as well as with active voice participles, which are formed by adding an -οντας or a -ώντας suffix to a verb.

Greek              Ο ήρωας έπεσε κάτω, μην έχοντας τη δύναμη να συνεχίσει.
Romanization              O íroas épese káto, min éhondas ti dínami na sinehísi.
Translation              “The hero fell down, not having the strength to continue.” 

4. Double Negatives

A Hand Ticking the Choice No on a Questionnaire

In Greek, double negatives only create a positive statement some of the time. It really depends on the choice of words.

Here’s an example of two negations making a positive statement:

Greek              Δεν θέλω να μην κοιμάσαι.
Romanization              Den thélo na min kimáse.
Translation              “I don’t want (you) not to sleep.”
Meaning              I want you to sleep.

Nevertheless, sometimes two negations make an even more negative statement. This usually happens with negative Greek words and phrases, like the ones we presented in the previous section of this blog post.

Greek              Το βιβλίο δεν είναι πουθενά.
Romanization              To vivlío den íne puthená.
Translation              “The book is nowhere.”
Meaning              The book is (very) difficult to find.

Interestingly, in Greek there are also triple negatives formed by repeating a negation word and including the pledge particle μα (ma) – “ma,” which expresses opposition. In that way, the negation is highlighted even more. 

Greek              Κανείς, μα κανείς δεν θα το μάθει.
Romanization              Kanís, ma kanís den tha to máthi.
Translation              “Νobody, but nobody won’t learn this.”
Meaning              Nobody will find out about this.

5. Conclusion

Is there a sentence or a phrase that you find difficult to negate? Let us know in the comments below!

As you should have noticed by now, Greek negation is pretty easy to learn and use. In other languages, there are many different ways to form a negation, which often include an auxiliary verb, such as “do” or “don’t” in English. 

This is definitely a cornerstone chapter of learning Greek, as negations can be used widely in our everyday lives. With enough studying and practice, you’ll be on your way to mastering Greek negation in no time, and we’ll be here for you every step of the way.

At GreekPod101.com, we aim to provide you with everything you need to know about the Greek language in a fun and engaging way. Blog posts like this one, word lists, grammar tips, and even YouTube videos, are waiting for you to discover them! And if you’d prefer a more customizable learning experience, you can upgrade your account to use our MyTeacher service, which will allow you to ask all your questions to your own personal native Greek teacher. Don’t forget to join our online community and discuss the lessons with other students!

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Learn All About Greek Tenses

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Greek tenses are a cornerstone chapter for every student of the language. They allow you to refer with ease to actions of the present, past, and future—a basic skill required for everyday discussions. 

The good news is that the Greek tenses are very similar to those in English, making it easier to adapt. On the other hand, the bad news is that the Greek language features many different verb groups, as well as many exceptions. 

In this blog post, we’ll demonstrate the use of Greek tenses and provide you with useful examples throughout.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Greek Table of Contents
  1. Present
  2. Past
  3. Future
  4. The Auxiliary Verb “έχω”
  5. Verb Conjugations
  6. Conclusion

1. Present

A Man Pointing at His Wristwatch

Talking about the present is one of the most common ways to describe your current actions, your hobbies, and your habits. There are two Greek present tenses: Ενεστώτας and παρακείμενος.

Let’s take a closer look at each one of them below. 

A- Ενεστώτας (Enestótas) – “Present” 

DescriptionEquivalent English TenseUsual Time Phrases
The Greek present tense indicates a continuing action, something that happens continuously or repeatedly, or something that is in the process of happening. Present simple and present continuous.
  • τώρα (tóra) – “now”
  • κάθε μέρα (káthe méra) – “every day”
  • κάθε μήνα (káthe mína) – “every month”

Examples:

  • Greek: Εγώ τώρα διαβάζω.
  • Romanization: Egó tóra diavázo.
  • Translation: “I’m reading now.”
  • Greek: Εγώ κάνω γυμναστική κάθε μέρα.
  • Romanization: Egó káno yimnastikí káthe méra.
  • Translation: “I exercise every day.”
  • Greek: Η Μαρία κάθε χρόνο πηγαίνει διακοπές.
  • Romanization: I María káthe hróno piyéni diakopés.
  • Translation: “Maria goes on vacation every year.”

B- Παρακείμενος (Parakímenos) – “Present Perfect” 

DescriptionEquivalent English TenseUsual Time Phrases
The Greek present perfect tense indicates an action that has already taken place. Present perfect
  • ήδη (ídi) – “already”

Examples:

  • Greek: Σήμερα έχω ήδη μαγειρέψει.
  • Romanization: Símera ého ídi mayirépsi.
  • Translation: “Today, I have already cooked.”
  • Greek: Ο Γιάννης έχει διαβάσει αυτό το βιβλίο.
  • Romanization: O Yánis éhi diavási aftó to vivlío.
  • Translation: “John has read this book.”

2. Past

A Calendar Indicating Yesterday

You know what they say: What’s in the past, stays in the past. However, talking about your past experiences can be a very good conversation starter.

Are you ready to tell your Greek friends all about your adventures?

Here are the three possible Greek past tenses for verbs: Αόριστος, παρατατικός, and υπερσυντέλικος.

A- Αόριστος (Aóristos) – “Aorist”

DescriptionEquivalent English TenseUsual Time Phrases
The Greek aorist tense indicates an action that took place some time in the past. It doesn’t provide any information about how long it took or whether the results of this action are still in effect. Past simple
  • χθες (hthes) – “yesterday”
  • πέρσι (pérsi) – “last year”
  • την περασμένη εβδομάδα (tin perazméni evdomáda) – “last week”

Examples:

  • Greek: Χθες πήγαμε στο Μουσείο της Ακρόπολης.
  • Romanization: Hthes pígame sto Musío tis Akrópolis.
  • Translation: “Yesterday, we went to the Acropolis Museum.”
  • Greek: Πέρσι επισκεφτήκαμε για πρώτη φορά την Ελλάδα.
  • Romanization: Pérsi episkeftíkame ya próti forá tin Elláda.
  • Translation: “Last year, we visited Greece for the first time.”
  • Greek: Πριν μια εβδομάδα ξεκίνησα να μαθαίνω Ελληνικά.
  • Romanization: Prin mia evdomáda xekínisa na mathéno Eliniká.
  • Translation: “One week ago, I started learning Greek.”

➤ If you feel like digging into the aorist tense a bit more, check out our lesson Talking About the Past.

B- Παρατατικός (Paratatikós) – “Imperfect”

DescriptionEquivalent English TenseUsual Time Phrases
The Greek imperfect tense indicates an action that took place in the past either repeatedly or continuously over a long time period.Past continuous
  • χθες (hthes) – “yesterday”
  • πέρσι (pérsi) – “last year”
  • πριν μία εβδομάδα (prin mía evdomáda) – “last week”

Examples:

  • Greek: Χθες έτρεχα για μία ώρα.
  • Romanization: Hthes étreha ya mía óra.
  • Translation: “Yesterday, I was running for one hour.”
  • Greek: Εμείς περπατούσαμε για δύο ώρες, μέχρι να βρούμε το ξενοδοχείο.
  • Romanization: Emís perpatúsame ya dío óres, méhri na vrúme to xenodohío.
  • Translation: “We were walking for two hours, until we found the hotel.”

➤ Learn more about the imperfect tense by studying our lesson Reminiscing in Greek.

C- Υπερσυντέλικος (Ipersindélikos) – “Pluperfect”

DescriptionEquivalent English TenseUsual Time Phrases
The Greek pluperfect indicates an action that took place before a certain moment in the past.Past perfect
  • μέχρι χθες (méhri hthes) – “until yesterday”
  • μέχρι πέρσι (méhri pérsi) – “until last year”
  • μέχρι πριν μία εβδομάδα (méhri prin mía evdomáda) – “until last week”

Examples:

  • Greek: Μέχρι χθες δεν είχα φάει ελληνικό φαγητό.
  • Romanization: Méhri hthes den íha fái elinikó fayitó.
  • Translation: “Until yesterday, I hadn’t eaten Greek food.”
  • Greek: Μέχρι πέρσι δεν είχα επισκεφτεί τη Σαντορίνη.
  • Romanization: Méhri pérsi den íha episkeftí ti Sandoríni.
  • Translation: “Until last year, I hadn’t visited Santorini.”

3. Future

A Calendar Indicating Tomorrow

Making plans about the future is what keeps us going. In order to describe your future plans, you’ll definitely need the future tenses in Greek, including συνοπτικός μέλλοντας, εξακολουθητικός μέλλοντας, and συντελεσμένος μέλλοντας

A- Συνοπτικός μέλλοντας (Sinoptikós mélondas) – “Simple Future”

DescriptionEquivalent English TenseUsual Time Phrases
The Greek simple future tense indicates an action that will take place once in the future.Simple future
  • αύριο (ávrio) – “tomorrow”
  • του χρόνου (tu hrónu) – “next year”
  • την επόμενη εβδομάδα (tin epómeni evdomáda) – “next week”

Examples:

  • Greek: Αύριο θα πάμε στη συναυλία.
  • Romanization: Ávrio tha páme sti sinavlía.
  • Translation: “Tomorrow, we will go to the concert.”
  • Greek: Η Ελένη θα γίνει 28 χρονών του χρόνου.
  • Romanization: I Eléni tha yíni íkosi októ hronón tu hrónu.
  • Translation: “Eleni will become 28 years old next year.”

B- Εξακολουθητικός μέλλοντας (Exakoluthitikós mélondas) – “Future Continuous” 

DescriptionEquivalent English TenseUsual Time Phrases
The Greek future continuous tense indicates an action that will take place in the future repeatedly or continuously over a long time period.Future continuous
  • από εδώ και πέρα  (apó edó ke péra) – “from now on”
  • από αύριο (apó ávrio) – “from tomorrow on”

Examples:

  • Greek: Από εδώ και πέρα θα διαβάζω περισσότερο.
  • Romanization: Apó edó ke péra tha diavázo perisótero.
  • Translation: “From now on, I will study more.”
  • Greek: Από αύριο θα τρώω πιο υγιεινά.
  • Romanization: Apó ávrio tha tróo pio iyiiná.
  • Translation: “Beginning tomorrow, I will eat more healthy.”

C- Συντελεσμένος μέλλοντας (Sindelezménos mélondas) – “Future Perfect”

DescriptionEquivalent English TenseUsual Time Phrases
The Greek future perfect tense indicates an action that will have taken place in the future by a certain point in time.Future perfect
  • μέχρι αύριο (méhri ávrio) – “by tomorrow”
  • μέχρι τον επόμενο μήνα (méhri ton epómeno mína) – “by next month”

Examples:

  • Greek: Μέχρι αύριο θα έχω μελετήσει τρία μαθήματα.
  • Romanization: Méhri ávrio tha ého meletísi tría mathímata.
  • Translation: “By tomorrow, I will have studied three lessons.”
  • Greek: Μέχρι τον επόμενο μήνα θα έχω χάσει 5 κιλά.
  • Romanization: Méhri ton epómeno mína tha ého hási pénde kilá.
  • Translation: “By next month, I will have lost 5 kilos.”

4. The Auxiliary Verb “έχω”

As you might have already noticed in the examples, some tenses make use of the auxiliary verb “έχω” in their structure. 

More specifically, the present perfect and future perfect utilize the present tense of the verb έχω (ého) – “have,” whereas pluperfect utilizes the past tense of the same verb: είχα (íha) – “had.”

For your convenience, in the table below you’ll find all the forms of this verb.

Παρακείμενος (Parakímenos) – Present Perfect
εγώ (egó) – “I” έχω διαβάσει (ého diavási) – “have read”
εσύ (esí) – “you”έχεις διαβάσει (éhis diavási) – “have read”
αυτός / αυτή / αυτό (aftós / aftí / aftó) – “he / she / it”έχει διαβάσει (éhi diavási) – “has read”
εμείς (emís) – “we”έχουμε διαβάσει (éhume diavási) – “have read”
εσείς (esís) – “you”έχετε διαβάσει (éhete diavási) – “have read”
αυτοί / αυτές / αυτά (aftí / aftés / aftá) – “they”έχουν διαβάσει (éhun diavási) – “have read”

As for the future perfect, the only thing that needs to be added is the preposition θα (tha) – “will.”

Συντελεσμένος Μέλλοντας (Sindelezménos Mélondas) – “Future Perfect”
εγώ (egó) – “I” θα έχω διαβάσει (ého diavási) – “will have read”
εσύ (esí) – “you”θα έχεις διαβάσει (éhis diavási) – “will have read”
αυτός / αυτή / αυτό (aftós / aftí / aftó) – “he / she / it”θα έχει διαβάσει (éhi diavási) – “will have read”
εμείς (emís) – “we”θα έχουμε διαβάσει (éhume diavási) – “will have read”
εσείς (esís) – “you”θα έχετε διαβάσει (éhete diavási) – “will have read”
αυτοί / αυτές / αυτά (aftí / aftés / aftá) – “they”θα έχουν διαβάσει (éhun diavási) – “will have read”

Now, for the past perfect, we’ll need the aorist form of this verb, which is demonstrated below.

Υπερσυντέλικος (Ipersindélikos) – Pluperfect/Past Perfect
εγώ (egó) – “I” είχα διαβάσει (íha diavási) – “had read”
εσύ (esí) – “you”είχες διαβάσει (íhes diavási) – “had read”
αυτός / αυτή / αυτό (aftós / aftí / aftó) – “he / she / it”είχε διαβάσει (íhe diavási) – “had read”
εμείς (emís) – “we”είχαμε διαβάσει (íhame diavási) – “had read”
εσείς (esís) – “you”είχατε διαβάσει (íhate diavási) – “had read”
αυτοί / αυτές / αυτά (aftí / aftés / aftá) – “they”είχαν διαβάσει (íhan diavási) – “had read”

5. Verb Conjugations

A Teacher in Front of a Blackboard, Holding Some Books

In order to complete your knowledge of Greek verbs, you certainly need to study other conjugation factors, as well. More specifically, you should remember that Greek verbs conjugate according to person, number, mood, and voice.

This definitely perplexes things, but you don’t need to worry. Take a look at our Greek Verb Conjugations article in order to familiarize yourself with all the different conjugation factors.  

6. Conclusion

Verb conjugation and tenses are the core of Greek grammar. For more information, check out the Intermediate and Upper Intermediate series on GreekPod101.com.

Greek grammar is vast, and it’s totally okay for you to feel a bit confused, especially if you’re a beginner. So, how would you feel if you had a personal teacher to guide you all the way through this grammar labyrinth? In addition to our great selection of free learning resources, we also offer a personalized service for our Premium PLUS members called MyTeacher, which allows you to enjoy a unique one-on-one learning experience!

Before you go, feel free to let us know in the comments if you still have any questions about Greek tenses. We’d be glad to help!

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How Long Does it Take to Learn Greek?

A Useful Guide for Beginners

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How long does it take to learn Greek? Is Greek a difficult language to master? How can I learn Greek fast?

These questions (and many more) might pass through your mind as you set out to start learning Greek. Is there a definite answer to all of them? Well, actually no. 

However, by the time you’re done reading this blog post, you’ll have a clearer understanding of what it takes to achieve the different levels of Greek fluency. You’ll also walk away with useful tips on how to learn the Greek language more effectively and speed up your progress.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Greek Table of Contents
  1. Is Greek a Difficult Language?
  2. How Long Does it Take to Achieve a Beginner Level?
  3. How Long Does it Take to Achieve an Intermediate Level?
  4. How Long Does it Take to Achieve an Advanced Level?
  5. How Can I Learn Greek Faster?
  6. Conclusion

1. Is Greek a Difficult Language?

Rumor has it that Greek is difficult to learn. But does this statement correspond to reality?

A Woman Laughing and Holding a Book Over Her Head

Well, it’s not super-easy. That’s for sure.

Greek is not a Romance language, meaning it does not make use of Latin characters. Although that fact alone might intimidate new learners, the reality is more encouraging. Greek is considered a stand-alone branch of the Indo-European language family, and it has heavily influenced almost every major European language. This is mainly because modern European civilization stems from Ancient Greek civilization.  

As a result, there are many words in English (and in European Romance languages) that were originally Greek. In addition, Greece has always been in touch with other European countries, creating cultural and commercial bonds. Therefore, the Greek language also contains many originally foreign words (from French, Italian, English, etc.).

The Greek alphabet shares many common characteristics with the English alphabet, though it also includes some unique features. The similarities, however, make learning Greek even easier.

Even from a phonetic perspective, many people state that Greek sounds a bit like Spanish, Italian, or Portuguese. Therefore, it doesn’t sound that extraordinary to American and European ears. 

At this point, we should note that the difficulty you’ll have learning Greek highly depends on your mother tongue, as well. For example, some people from Asian, Arab, or African countries find it harder to adjust because their mother tongue is far more different from Greek than European languages are. 

All in all, if you’re still looking for an accurate answer here, it is: No, Greek is not that hard to learn!

Below, we’ll take a look at how long it takes to learn Greek based on the level of knowledge you’re aiming for.

2. How Long Does it Take to Achieve a Beginner Level?

Time to achieveTaking as a reference the requirements of the A1 level on the CEFR scale, you will need approximately 100-120 hours of study.
What you will learn at this levelThe learner will have the ability to communicate with native speakers at a basic level. He or she will be able to…
  • …introduce himself/herself
  • ….describe the place of his/her residence
  • ….talk about the weather….discuss hobbies and activities
  • ….describe his/her family
  • ….give and receive directions and basic phrases on how to get around the city
  • ….talk about foods and drinks.
Example lessonSpeaking Perfect Greek at a Restaurant

3. How Long Does it Take to Achieve an Intermediate Level?

Time to achieveTaking as a reference the requirements of the B1 level, you will need approximately 180-250 hours of study.
What you will learn at this levelThe learner will be able to communicate at an intermediate level, on the following subjects:

Daily transactions
  • Business
  • Travels
  • The characteristics of products
  • Methods of payment
  • Services and activities
Example lessonMaking an Appointment in Greek

4. How Long Does it Take to Achieve an Advanced Level?

Time to achieveTaking as a reference the requirements of the C1 level, you will need approximately 400-520 hours of study.
What you will learn at this levelThe learner will be able to communicate at an advanced level. This simply means that the student should be able to express his/her views on a wide variety of subjects, speaking without long disruptions and communicating effectively with public and private services for a wide variety of transactions.

In addition, at this level, the learner has gained some knowledge of the Greek culture.
Example lessonTop 10 Greek Holidays and Festivals

5. How Can I Learn Greek Faster?

A Smiling Woman Reading a Book

In the modern world, our daily routines are getting faster and faster as we try to serve many different roles throughout the day. That being said, our daily tasks often leave limited time (if any) for our hobbies, let alone learning a new language. 

Learning a new language, however, doesn’t have to take up much time within your daily schedule. The key is to find smart ways to practice—and why not even entertain yourself at the same time?

Here are a few ways to learn Greek fast: 

  • Watch Greek-Related Netflix Shows

    Although Netflix does not include much Greek-language content, there are many series and movies that are related to Greek history, mythology, or general lifestyle. These shows provide the perfect opportunity to take a step closer to the Greek culture, even if you don’t know a single word of Greek.

A Couple Watching a Movie at the Cinema
  • Watch Greek Movies

    Even if you’re not sure whether you want to pick up a new language, watching some Greek movies is the perfect way to test the waters. Greek cinematography includes movies of many genres and themes, so you’re sure to find a Greek movie that interests you.

    Tip: If you’re a complete beginner, watch the movie with English subtitles. This will familiarize you with how Greek sounds and may help you pick up some phrases. Later on, as you start learning Greek and making progress, you may switch to Greek subtitles (or no subtitles at all!).

A Happy Child Looking at a Laptop’s Screen
  • Watch Greek YouTube Channels

    Another great way to speed up your Greek learning is to watch Greek YouTube videos. These videos don’t have to be exclusively educational. There are many Greek channels covering a range of topics, from infotainment to travel and from Greek songs to famous Greek YouTubers commenting on a wide variety of subjects. One thing is for sure: You’ll be able to get yourself involved in the Greek language and culture much easier this way!

  • Read Greek Books
  • If you’re a bookworm and an intermediate Greek learner, it might be a good idea to start reading Greek books. Your options are literally endless, and you’ll be able to enhance your vocabulary quickly and easily.

    Tip: If you’re a beginner, then children’s books might be just perfect, since they use basic vocabulary and simple sentences.


A Man and a Woman Learning a New Language with Post-it Notes
  • Place Post-It Notes Around the House

    Wondering how to learn Greek vocabulary when you’re short on time? Write some Greek words and phrases on Post-It notes and place them strategically around the house—you’ll be surprised how much faster you can learn Greek this way. We tend to learn faster when we’re actively involved with the language, so what could be better than reviewing the Greek names of basic objects again and again without even noticing?

    Tip: Change the Post-It notes regularly in order to learn even more words and phrases.

  • Switch Your Smartphone’s Menu to Greek

    If you have an understanding of the basics of the Greek language, then the key to speeding up your learning progress might be as simple as switching your smartphone’s menu to Greek. This might seem annoying at first, but you’ll soon realize the benefits of reading Greek on a daily basis.

  • Invest in a Greek Language Learning App

    One of the best ways to learn a new language on the go is to utilize a language learning app like the one offered by GreekPod101.com. 


Conclusion

Learning Greek is not as hard as you might have thought after all, right?

As long as you find ways to incorporate Greek language learning into your everyday routine, you’ll be able to understand Greek in no time. 


What’s your favorite way to learn a new language? Let us know in the comments below!

Did you know you could begin learning Greek right now in an easy and fun way? Well, now you do! Create your free lifetime account on GreekPod101.com today!

GreekPod101 offers you high-quality, practical materials and lessons covering everything about the Greek language and culture. We aim to provide you with valuable lessons that will keep you interested and engaged from day one. Stay tuned for more articles like this one, word lists, grammar tips, and even YouTube videos—all this and more are waiting for you to discover them!

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Greek Proverbs: Little Pearls of Wisdom

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Some people say that proverbs are the accumulated wisdom of a culture. Indeed, most Greek proverbs can be used in a wide variety of situations and can really make a difference when used at the right moment. Greek proverbs also incorporate many cultural elements, so studying them is a great way to dive deeper into the Greek culture and expand your vocabulary.

In this blog post, we’ll present you with the most popular Greek proverbs, along with their translations and meanings. Feel free to use them while chatting with your Greek friends—it’s sure to impress them!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Greek Table of Contents
  1. Animal-Related Greek Proverbs
  2. Greek Proverbs About Time
  3. Greek Proverbs About Education & Language
  4. Greek Proverbs About Caution
  5. Miscellaneous Greek Proverbs
  6. Conclusion

1. Animal-Related Greek Proverbs

Various Animals

Sometimes, we can see aspects of our own lives reflected in the animal world. Here are a few popular Greek proverbs featuring animals—can you relate to any of these? 

Greek ProverbΕίπε ο γάιδαρος τον πετεινό κεφάλα.
RomanizationÍpe o gáidaros ton petíno kefála.
Translation“The donkey called the rooster big-headed.”
NotesThe word πετεινός (petinós) is a synonym of κόκορας (kókoras), both meaning “rooster.” Nowadays, it’s more common to use the latter.
Context of UsageThis proverb is often said between friends in a humorous context, when the one is mocking the other about a characteristic that the two share.

Greek ProverbΌταν λείπει η γάτα, χορεύουν τα ποντίκια.
RomanizationÓtan lípi i gáta, horévun ta podíkia.
Translation“When the cat’s away, the mice dance.”
NotesIn Greek, it’s common to use the word λείπω (lípo) as an equivalent of “to be away.” Literally, in other cases, it may also be translated as “to miss” or “to be missed.”
Context of UsageImagine taking care of a younger sibling for a while when your parents are away. When the child realizes that the parents are gone, (s)he starts to do all the “forbidden” things, such as eating a lot of chocolate or being extremely loud. In cases like this, you could use the proverb.

Greek ProverbΗ καμήλα δεν βλέπει την καμπούρα της.
RomanizationI kamíla den vlépi tin kabúra tis.
Translation“The camel can’t see its own hump.”
Context of UsageYou might use this saying when someone is harshly criticizing someone else, without thinking of their own disadvantages or faults.

Greek ProverbΕγώ το είπα στον σκύλο μου και ο σκύλος στην ουρά του.
RomanizationEgó to ípa ston skílo mu ke o skílos stin urá tu.
Translation“I said this to my dog and my dog said it to its tail.”
Context of UsageSomeone could say this when your mother asks you to do something, and you then make someone else do it instead.

Greek ProverbΌσα δεν φτάνει η αλεπού, τα κάνει κρεμαστάρια.
RomanizationÓsa den ftáni i alepú, ta káni kremastária.
Translation“What the fox cannot reach, it turns them into hangers.”
Context of UsageThis proverb refers to a situation where someone tends to derogate someone else’s achievements because, deep down inside, they know they can’t achieve the same things. This phrase is most commonly used in an ironic tone.

Greek ProverbΈνας κούκος δεν φέρνει την άνοιξη.
RomanizationÉnas kúkos den férni tin ánixi.
Translation“A cuckoo bird does not bring the spring.”
Context of UsageThis proverb might be used when someone sees a positive indication of something and quickly believes that the end result will also be positive.

➤ Learn more about animals’ names in Greek by studying our relevant vocabulary list or our video on Common Animals in the Park

2. Greek Proverbs About Time

A Woman Holding and Pointing to a Clock

Our lives are encompassed by time, and this fact has drawn much speculation from great thinkers and entire societies the world over. Below are some common Greek-language proverbs on the topic of time. 

Greek ProverbΟ χρόνος είναι ο καλύτερος γιατρός.
RomanizationO hrónos íne o kalíteros yatrós.
Translation“Time is the best doctor.”
Context of UsageWhen a friend of yours gets hurt or breaks up with their partner, you could say this phrase to make him or her feel better.

Greek ProverbΤο καλό πράγμα αργεί να γίνει.
RomanizationTo kaló prágma aryí na gíni.
Translation“The good thing takes time to happen.”
Context of UsageYou might use this proverb when a friend of yours grows disappointed about the progress of his plans. It would be an encouraging way to say that everything will be great in the long run. 

Greek ProverbΚάλλιο αργά παρά ποτέ.
RomanizationKálio argá pará poté.
Translation“Better late than never.”
NotesThe word κάλλιο (kálio) is a rarely used informal version of the adverb καλύτερα (kalítera), both meaning “better.”
Context of UsageLet’s say your mother decides to go back to school in order to follow her dreams. It’s obviously better to do something later in life than to not do anything at all. 

Greek ProverbΌποιος δεν θέλει να ζυμώσει, δέκα μέρες κοσκινίζει.
RomanizationÓpios den théli na zimósi, déka méres koskinízi.
Translation“Whoever does not want to knead, sifts for ten days.”
Context of UsageYou might say this to motivate a friend of yours who’s procrastinating to take action.

Greek ProverbΑγάλι-αγάλι γίνεται η αγουρίδα μέλι.
RomanizationAgáli-agáli yínete i agourída méli.
Translation“The unripe grape becomes sweet like honey slowly-slowly.”
NotesThe phrase αγάλι-αγάλι (agáli-agáli) means “slowly-slowly.”
Context of UsageThis proverb would be encouraging to say to a friend who’s disappointed with the progress of their plans. It would reassure them that they will achieve their goals.

Greek ProverbΜάτια που δεν βλέπονται γρήγορα λησμονιούνται.
RomanizationMátia pu den vlépode grígora lismoniúde.
Translation“Eyes that don’t see each other frequently are soon forgotten.”
NotesThe verb λησμονώ (lizmonó) is not that common and we could say that it hasn’t got an exact equivalent in English. It’s something between “to forget (someone or something)” and “to fade into oblivion.”
Context of UsageImagine if you used to hang out with a friend every day, but as soon as one of you goes abroad for a long period, you don’t even text or think of each other much.

➤ Memorizing these time-related proverbs will be an impressive feat, but don’t stop there. Learn how to tell the time in Greek today!

3. Greek Proverbs About Education & Language

Some Books and a Graduation Hat on Top of Them

Education and learning have long been an integral part of Greek life, with formal schooling dating back to Ancient Greece. Here are just a few Greek proverbs and sayings on the topic! 

Greek ProverbΗ γλώσσα κόκαλα δεν έχει και κόκαλα τσακίζει.
RomanizationI glósa kókala den éhi ke kókala tsakízi.
Translation“The tongue has no bones but it crushes bones.”
NotesIn Greek, we usually say σπάω κόκαλα (spáo kókala), meaning “to break bones.” This is a special occasion where the verb τσακίζω (tsakízo) is used instead.
Context of UsageThis is often said when someone says really hurtful words to another person.

Greek ProverbΤα πολλά λόγια είναι φτώχεια.
RomanizationTa polá lógia íne ftóhia.
Translation“Many words are poverty.” (“Silence is golden.”)
NotesLiterally, the word φτώχεια (ftóhia) means “poverty.” Greeks appreciate getting the message across with as few words as possible.
Context of UsageYou might say this when someone keeps babbling without getting to the point.

Greek ProverbΆνθρωπος αγράμματος, ξύλο απελέκητο.
RomanizationÁnthropos agrámatos, xílo apelékito.
Translation“Illiterate man, row wood.”
Context of UsageThis saying is used to describe someone who is ignorant due to lack of education. It’s considered an insult, so use it carefully.

Greek ProverbΔάσκαλε που δίδασκες και νόμο δεν εκράττεις.
RomanizationDáskale pu dídaskes ke nómo den ekrátis.
Translation“Oh, teacher that you taught but you don’t implement your teachings.”
NotesThe verb εκράττεις (ekrátis) is an older form of the verb κρατώ (krató), meaning “to hold” or “to keep.”
Context of UsageYou could use this saying when a friend of yours does not implement his own advice. 

4. Greek Proverbs About Caution

A Man Who Has Slipped on a Wet Floor

While it’s good to look for the best in people and to make the most of every situation, it’s also crucial to practice caution and common sense. Below are a few common Greek proverbs used to advise caution. 

Greek ProverbΟ διάβολος έχει πολλά ποδάρια.
RomanizationO diávolos éhi polá podária.
Translation“The devil has many legs.”
NotesThis phrase aims to highlight that evil can take many forms.
Context of UsageWhen a friend of yours has just faced a difficult situation and thinks that it’s totally over, you could advise him to keep alert by using this phrase.

Greek ProverbΌπου ακούς πολλά κεράσια, κράτα μικρό καλάθι.
RomanizationÓpu akús polá kerásia, kráta mikró kaláthi.
Translation“When you hear about many cherries, hold a small basket.”
Context of UsageWhen a friend of yours gets overly excited about an event or an opportunity, you might want to tell him to be more cautious and not to expect too much. 

Greek ProverbΌποιος βιάζεται σκοντάφτει.
RomanizationÓpios viázete skondáfti.
Translation“Whoever is in a hurry stumbles.”
Context of UsageWhen a friend of yours is doing something in a hurry that requires concentration and attention to detail, you might use this proverb to warn them that the end result will not be good.

Greek ProverbΌταν καείς από τον χυλό, φυσάς και το γιαούρτι.
RomanizationÓtan kaís apó ton hiló, fysás ke to yaúrti.
Translation“When you get burned by porridge, you also blow the yogurt.”
Context of UsageThis proverb is used to describe someone who has already faced some difficult situations and gotten hurt. Now, when a seemingly good situation arises, that person will continue to act cautious to avoid being hurt again. 

5. Miscellaneous Greek Proverbs

A Traditional Greek Dance
Greek ProverbΈξω από τον χορό πολλά τραγούδια λέγονται.
RomanizationÉxo apó ton horó polá tragúdia légode.
Translation“Outside the dance-circle many songs are sung.”
NotesThis phrase is inspired by Greek celebrations, which often include group dancing in a circle.
Context of UsageYou might say this phrase after someone gives advice on a difficult situation they’ve never experienced.

➤ Interested in Greek music? Take a look at the Top 10 Greek Songs

Greek ProverbΟι πολλές γνώμες βουλιάζουν το καράβι.
RomanizationI polés gnómes vuliázun to karávi.
Translation“Too many opinions sink the boat.”
Context of UsageThis saying refers to a group of people who are trying to make a decision, but each person has a different opinion. It’s usually said by someone who undertakes to find the option that’s best for everyone.

Greek ProverbΣπίτι μου, σπιτάκι μου και σπιτοκαλυβάκι μου.
RomanizationSpíti mu, spitáki mu ke spitokaliváki mu.
Translation“My home, my sweet home, my sweet hut.”
NotesThis phrase is equivalent to the English phrase, “Home, sweet home.”
Context of UsageComing home after a long time away will definitely make you want to say this phrase. 

➤ Wondering how to describe your home’s interior in Greek? Take a look at our relevant vocabulary list for some useful words! 

Greek ProverbΑγαπά ο Θεός τον κλέφτη, αγαπά και τον νοικοκύρη.
RomanizationAgapá o Theós ton kléfti, agapá ke ton nikokíri.
Translation“God loves the thief, but He also loves the homeowner.”
NotesThis proverb aims to highlight that evil might take over temporarily, but good reigns in the end. 
Context of UsageNext time you’re referring to someone who does not act appropriately, you could use this phrase to express that he’ll get discovered or punished eventually. 

Greek ProverbΑπό αγκάθι βγαίνει ρόδο και από ρόδο αγκάθι.
RomanizationApó angáthi vyéni ródo ke apó ródo angáthi.
Translation“A rose comes out of a thorn and a thorn comes out of a rose.”
NotesThis phrase presents the general truth that a person should not be characterized as good or bad based on their parents’ character.
Context of UsageThis would be an apt phrase to use when a very talented child is born to not-so-talented parents, or vice-versa.

Greek ProverbΚράτα με να σε κρατώ να ανεβούμε το βουνό.
RomanizationKráta me na se krató na anevúme to vunó.
Translation“Hold my hand and I’ll hold yours so we can climb the mountain.”
NotesThis proverb is here to remind us that cooperation results in greater achievements.
Context of UsageYou could say this when you have a very difficult group assignment, but you want to encourage your partners.

Greek ProverbΜπρος γκρεμός και πίσω ρέμα.
RomanizationBros gremós ke píso réma.
Translation“Cliff in front and stream behind.”
NotesThe word μπρος (bros) is an informal, shortened version of the word εμπρός (embrós), meaning “in the front.”
Context of UsageYou could say this when you feel trapped in a dilemma and the choices you have available seem to be equally bad.

Greek ProverbΤο μήλο κάτω από τη μηλιά θα πέσει.
RomanizationTo mílo káto apó ti miliá tha pési.
Translation“The apple will fall right below the apple tree.”
Context of UsageWhen a child has inherited a skill or a bad habit from their parents, you could use this phrase in order to state that it was to be expected.

➤ Speaking of apples, here are the names of more Fruits and Vegetables in Greek! 

Greek ProverbΗ καλή μέρα από το πρωί φαίνεται.
RomanizationI kalí méra apó to proí fénete.
Translation“You can tell a good day from the morning.”
Context of UsagePessimists often say this phrase when something bad happens early in the morning, believing that more bad things will come later in the day. This use denotes sarcasm, but it could also be used in a non-sarcastic way when something good happens.

Greek ProverbΈγιναν από δυο χωριά χωριάτες.
RomanizationÉyinan apó dio horiá horiátes.
Translation“They became villagers from two different villages.”
Context of UsageThis saying refers to two people who have quarrelled so much that they don’t talk to each other anymore. It’s also used simply to underline the intensity of an argument.

6. Conclusion

Now you have at your fingertips some of the most popular Greek proverbs to memorize. By studying them, you’ll gain more fluency as well as a better understanding of Greek culture as a whole.

Do you know any other Greek proverbs? Which one is your favorite? 

GreekPod101.com offers you high-quality, practical knowledge about the Greek language and culture. We aim to provide you with everything you need to know about the Greek language in a fun and interesting way. Stay tuned for more articles like this one, word lists, grammar tips, and even YouTube videos.

Until next time, happy learning! 

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An Easy-Breezy Greek Grammar Overview

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Grammar books usually consist of endless pages of rules and exceptions…so we’ve decided to make everything simpler for you!

In this overview of modern Greek grammar, we’ll introduce you to the very basics of Greek grammar, from vocabulary to cases. Therefore, if you’re contemplating learning Greek, then you’ve come to the right place!

In the following sections, you’ll find all of the basic grammar principles of the Greek language so you can start your language learning off on the right foot.  

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Greek Table of Contents
  1. General Rules
  2. Verbs
  3. Nouns & Articles
  4. Adjectives
  5. Adverbs
  6. Conclusion

1. General Rules

A Happy Student Wearing a Graduation Hat

We’ve got some good news for you!

Greek grammar shares some similarities with English grammar: 

  • Both languages use the same types of words
  • Both languages have a similar sentence structure

That being said, let’s explore these similarities in the following sections! 

1 – Vocabulary

Just like the English language, Greek features the following word types:

  • Nouns
    η γάτα i gáta – “the cat
  • Articles
    η γάτα – i gáta – “the cat”
  • Adjectives
    η μικρή γάτα – i mikrí gáta – “the small cat”
  • Verbs
    Εγώ τρέχω. – Egó trého. – “I run.”
  • Pronouns
    Εγώ τρέχω. – Egó trého.- “I run.”
  • Adverbs
    Εγώ τρέχω γρήγορα. –  Egó trého grígora. – “I run fast.”
  • Conjunctions / Linking Words
    Εγώ έχω έναν σκύλο και μία γάτα. – Egó ého énan skílo ke mía gáta. – “I have a dog and a cat.”
  • Prepositions
    Εγώ είμαι από την Ελλάδα. – Egó íme apó tin Elláda. – “I am from Greece.”

If you feel like expanding your vocabulary, check out our dedicated articles:

Customize your learning process by creating your own Word Bank, where you can categorize new words and even print them out!

2 – Sentence Structure

Both languages generally follow the SVO pattern (Subject-Verb-Object) when forming sentences. This is something that spurs many people forward with their plans to learn Greek and encourages those who have recently started. If you create your free lifetime account on GreekPod101.com, you’ll be able to create your first simple sentences from Lesson 1.

A Girl Reading a Book
Greek: Η Μαρία διαβάζει ένα βιβλίο.
Romanization: I María diavázi éna vivlío.
Translation:Maria reads a book.”
Subject – Who?
Η Μαρία
Verb – Action
διαβάζει
Object – What?
ένα βιβλίο.

If you want to learn more, check out our Word Order article, where you’ll find extended analyses of the SVO pattern, along with some other less-common sentence patterns. 

2. Verbs

A chapter that every Greek language learner struggles to master is verb conjugations. You see, according to the Greek verb system, verbs in Greek conjugate based on the subject of the sentence, the tense, and the mood.

1 – Tenses

The tenses of Greek verbs are:

  • Present: A continuing action, something happening continuously or repeatedly, a general truth,  or something that is in the process of happening. – It corresponds to the present simple and present continuous.

    Example:
    Greek: Εγώ μαγειρεύω κάθε μέρα.
    Romanization: Egó mayirévo káthe méra.
    Translation: “I cook every day.”
  • Aorist: An action that happened in the past. Provides no information on how long it took, or whether the results are still in effect. – It corresponds to the past simple.

    Example:
    Greek: Εγώ μαγείρεψα χθες.
    Romanization: Egó mayírepsa hthes.
    Translation: “I cooked yesterday.”
  • Imperfect: An action that happened in the past for a long period of time or in a repetitive way. – It corresponds to the past continuous.

    Example:
    Greek: Την προηγούμενη εβδομάδα, εγώ μαγείρευα κάθε μέρα.
    Romanization: Tin proigúmeni evdomáda, egó mayíreva káthe méra.
    Translation: “Last week, I was cooking every day.”
Two Children Cooking
  • Future simple: An action that will take place once or momentarily in the future.

    Example:
    Greek: Εγώ θα μαγειρέψω αύριο.
    Romanization: Egó tha mayιrépso ávrio.
    Translation: “I will cook tomorrow.”
  • Future continuous: An action that will take place in the future continuously, repeatedly, or for a long time period. 

    Example:
    Greek: Εγώ θα μαγειρεύω κάθε μέρα.
    Romanization: Egó tha mayιrévo káthe méra.
    Translation: “I will be cooking every day.”
  • Present perfect: An action that has already taken place.

    Example:
    Greek: Εγώ έχω μαγειρέψει.
    Romanization: Egó ého mayιrépsi.
    Translation: “I have cooked.”
  • Past perfect: An action that happened in the past before another action or at a certain time in the past.

    Example:
    Greek: Μέχρι τις 2 μ.μ, εγώ είχα μαγειρέψει.
    Romanization: Μéhri tis dío (metá mesimvrían) egó íha mayιrépsi.
    Translation: “By 2 p.m. I had cooked.”
  • Future perfect: An action that will have taken place in the future by a certain time point.

    Example:
    Greek: Μέχρι τις 2 μ.μ, θα έχω μαγειρέψει.
    Romanization: Μéhri tis dío (metá mesimvrías) egó tha ého mayιrépsi.
    Translation: “By 2 p.m. I will have cooked.”

2 – Moods

Are you in the mood for some more in-depth knowledge?

As we have already mentioned, Greek verbs conjugate according to the mood, as well. 

Here are the five moods of Greek verbs, along with examples of what they look like:

  • Indicative mood: Presents the action or the event as something certain or real (e.g. an objective fact).

    Example:
    Greek: Εγώ μαγειρεύω κάθε μέρα.
    Romanization: Egó mayirévo káthe méra.
    Translation: “I cook every day.”
  • Subjunctive mood: Presents the action or the event as something wanted, expected, or wished for.

    Example:
    Greek: Εγώ θέλω να μαγειρεύω κάθε μέρα.
    Romanization: Egó thélo na mayirévo káthe méra.
    Translation: “I want to cook every day.”
  • Imperative mood: May express a command (order), request, or desire.

    Example:
    Greek: Mαγείρεψε τώρα!
    Romanization: Mayírepse tóra!
    Translation: “Cook now!”
  • The participle:

    – The uninflected form has an adverbial function and may indicate time, manner, cause, condition, etc.

    Example:
    Greek: Ο χρόνος περνάει γρήγορα μαγειρεύοντας.
    Romanization: O hrónos pernái grígora mayirévodas.
    Translation: “Time passes by quickly while cooking.”

    – The inflected form has the function of an adjective, so it needs to agree in gender, number, and case with the noun it defines. It corresponds to the past participle when used on its own in speech.

    Example:
    Greek: Το κρέας είναι μαγειρεμένο.
    Romanization: To kréas íne mayireméno.
    Translation: “The meat is cooked.”
  • The infinitive: Uninflected form. Not to be confused with the English infinitive. The Greek infinitive is used for the formation of certain tenses: present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect. It corresponds to the past participle when used as part of the verb in the aforementioned tenses.

    Example:
    Greek: Εγώ έχω μαγειρέψει.
    Romanization: Egó ého mayιrépsi.
    Translation: “I have cooked.”

    Greek: Μέχρι τις 2 μ.μ, εγώ είχα μαγειρέψει.
    Romanization: Μéhri tis dío (metá mesimvrían) egó íha mayιrépsi.
    Translation: “By 2 p.m. I had cooked.”

    Greek: Μέχρι τις 2 μ.μ, θα έχω μαγειρέψει.
    Romanization: Μéhri tis dío (metá mesimvrían) egó tha ého mayιrépsi.
    Translation: “By 2 p.m. I will have cooked.”

3. Nouns & Articles

Nouns and articles are another important aspect of Greek grammar. They are gendered and get declined according to each case.

1 – Gender

In Greek grammar, gender is a way of classifying nouns, and this system certainly perplexes many new Greek learners. All Greek nouns are assigned to one of three genders:

Many Different Pets
  • Masculine – e.g. ο σκύλος – o skílos – “the dog”
  • Feminine – e.g. η γάτα – i gáta – “the cat”
  • Neuter – e.g. το ποντίκι – to pondíki – “the mouse”

As you might have already noticed, there are also different articles for each gender category. Generally, the articles should match the gender of the noun. 

Check out our Greek Word of the Day and expand your vocabulary! Learning a new word each day along with its article will quickly familiarize you with this concept.

2 – Cases

Moreover, nouns change their suffixes according to their placement within a sentence. Therefore, there are four cases:

  • Nominative: In this case, the noun is the subject or predicate of the sentence.

    Example:
    Greek: Ο σκύλος τρέχει.
    Romanization: O skílos tréhi.
    Translation: “The dog is running.”

    Greek: Αυτό είναι ένας σκύλος.
    Romanization: Aftó íne énas skílos.
    Translation: “This is a dog.”
  • Genitive: This case is typically used to express possession or indirect objects, among other things.

    Example:
    Greek: Η μπάλα του σκύλου είναι κόκκινη.
    Romanization: I bála tu skílu íne kókkini.
    Translation: “The dog’s ball is red.”
  • Accusative: Here, the noun is typically the object of the sentence or part of a prepositional phrase.

    Example:
    Greek: Εγώ χαϊδεύω τον σκύλο.
    Romanization: Egó haidévo ton skílo.
    Translation: “I pet the dog.”

    Greek: Η μπάλα είναι για τον σκύλο.
    Romanization: I bála íne ya ton skílo.
    Translation: “The ball is for the dog.”
  • Vocative: This is used when addressing someone or something. 

    Example:
    Greek: Σκύλε, κάτσε!
    Romanization: Skíle, kátse!
    Translation: “Dog, sit!”

4. Adjectives

Like in English, adjectives are usually placed before the noun. 

Example:
Greek: ο μικρός σκύλος.
Romanization: o mikrós skílos
Translation: “the small dog”

However, adjectives get declined according to the gender of the noun they refer to, as well as the number and the case. 

Example:
Greek: η μικρή γάτα
Romanization: i mikrí gáta
Translation: “the small cat”

Greek: η ουρά της μικρής γάτας  
Romanization: i urá tis mikrís gátas
Translation: “the tail of the small cat”

Greek: οι μικρές γάτες  
Romanization: i mikrés gátes
Translation: “the small cats”

5. Adverbs

We saved this category for last, because…guess what?! Adverbs in Greek don’t get inflected! These words remain the same, regardless of the way they’re used in speech.

A Girl Hugging a Dog

Generally, adverbs are placed either right after the verb or at the end of the sentence.

Example:
Greek: Ο σκύλος τρέχει γρήγορα.
Romanization: O skílos tréhi grígora.
Translation: “The dog is running fast.”

6. Conclusion

That’s (almost) all, folks!

Sure, there’s so much more to analyze about Greek grammar! Whole books are written for that purpose!

However, this wasn’t our intention here. We simply wanted to introduce you to the basic Greek grammar principles so you can start making sense of it right from the beginning.

Greek is a wonderful language and, although the grammar may seem a bit complicated, we’re sure you are going to master it in no time! 

Start learning Greek today for free and discover our many articles, vocabulary lists, and YouTube videos

Before you go, let us know in the comments which aspect of Greek grammar is most challenging for you so far. We’d love to hear from you and help you out with anything you’re struggling with.

Happy Greek learning!

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Is Greek Hard to Learn?

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Learning a new language can be intimidating. When it comes to a less-popular language like Greek, spoken by only 13.8 million people worldwide, many potential learners wonder “Is it hard to learn Greek?”

The good news is that Greek is a branch of the Indo-European languages. This means that it shares many common characteristics with Spanish, English, and Italian. 

The bad news is… Wait a minute! Is there really any bad news? 

If you’re reading this article, then you should be fluent in English, regardless of your mother tongue. There it is: you’re already familiar with the philosophy of the most popular Indo-European language. This is a huge asset that will play an important role during your Greek-learning journey. 

With GreekPod101.com, you can start learning Greek in a fast and easy way. From our vast experience with students from all over the world, we’ve gathered in this article the most common difficulties that they face while learning Greek, plus solutions and tips on how to overcome them.

After reading this blog post, you’ll be able to say, out loud and with confidence: “Greek is certainly NOT hard to learn!”

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Learning Greek Table of Contents
  1. You Already Know Some Greek
  2. The Easiest & Hardest Parts of the Greek Language
  3. I Want to Learn Greek. Where Should I Start?
  4. Useful Advice for Novice Greek-Learners
  5. Why is GreekPod101.com Great for Learning Greek?
  6. Conclusion

1. You Already Know Some Greek

Yes, you do!

Did you know that five percent of the words included in a typical English dictionary have Greek origins? 

Take a look at some examples below.

GreekRomanizationEnglish Equivalent
κόσμοςkósmos“cosmos”
ακροβάτηςakrovátis“acrobat”
ιστορίαistoría“history”
ανώνυμοςanónimos“anonymous”
γαλαξίαςgalaxías“galaxy”
βακτήριοvaktírio“bacterium”
ρινόκεροςrinókeros“rhinoceros”
τεχνολογίαtehnoloyía“technology”
σαρκασμόςsarkazmós“sarcasm”
δημοκρατίαdimokratía“democracy”
ΕυρώπηEvrópi“Europe”
μουσικήmusikí“music”
φοβίαfovía“phobia”
πανικόςpanikós“panic”
πλανήτηςplanítis“planet”

And these are only some of them.

Innovation was prominent in ancient Greek culture. Therefore, many discoveries and terms, especially in the fields of mathematics, science, and medicine, originated from Greek.

This magical aspect of the Greek language was once highlighted by Mr. Zolotas, a Greek politician in the 1950s who created a whole speech in English using only Greek words

2. The Easiest & Hardest Parts of the Greek Language

Why is learning Greek so hard for some students? And what things make it pretty easy? We’ll outline both sides of the Greek language in the following sections! 

2.1 Easiest Parts

We could say that there are more easy parts than there are hard parts, for sure. Greek is, overall, not a hard language to learn, remember?

A Smiling Man Leaning Back in His Chair, Relaxed

Here are the easiest aspects of Greek language learning, so you can see for yourself:

  • Alphabet
    Even the word “alphabet” itself stems from the Greek word αλφάβητο (alphávito). The Greek alphabet consists of twenty-four letters, ordered from Α/α (“alpha”) to Ω/ω (“omega”), and it’s pretty similar to the alphabets of other European languages. 

    Tempted to start learning the Greek alphabet today? Watch  our relevant YouTube video to get a glimpse, or begin learning in depth with our Greek Alphabet Made Easy lesson.
  • Word Order
    The basic sentence structure in Greek follows the SVO pattern (Subject-Verb-Object), like the English language. In addition, adjectives are placed before nouns, and adverbs after verbs. 

    Here are some examples of simple Greek sentences:

Greek: Εγώ παίζω κιθάρα.
Romanization: Egó pézo kithára.
Translation: “I play the guitar.”

SubjectVerbObject
Εγώπαίζωκιθάρα

Greek: Ο μαύρος σκύλος κυνηγάει την άσπρη γάτα.
Romanization: O mávros skílos kinigái tin áspri gáta.
Translation: “The black dog chases the white cat.”

SubjectVerbObject
Ο μαύρος σκύλοςκυνηγάειτην άσπρη γάτα.

If you want to learn all the details about Greek word order, read our relevant blog post.

  • Pronunciation
    Phonetically, Greek is very similar to Spanish, Portuguese, and English. There are five basic vowels—i, u, e, o, a—which are typically included in the syllables. There’s also a stress mark, which can be placed only over vowels, indicating an accented syllable.

    Greek also features digraphs (two letters combined, making a distinct sound) and diphthongs (two vowels combined into one syllable), which appear to be tricky for young learners. However, once you learn them and familiarize yourself with the language, these will be a piece of cake.

2.2 Hardest Parts

Well, even the moon has a dark side. Just embrace the challenge!

A Desperate Man Looking at His Laptop in Anger

Here are the main reasons people find the Greek language hard to learn:

  • Spelling
    We’re not going to lie: Greek spelling can push you to your limits. But is this a reason to be disappointed?

    Even native Greek-speakers make spelling mistakes all the time. When you get started with Greek, focus on comprehension and practical examples. Will you make spelling mistakes? Sure. Will you get better and better with practice? Absolutely!

    We strongly recommend reading books, articles, and blog posts in Greek. You can even add Greek subtitles to your favorite movies! By doing so, you’ll familiarize yourself with Greek spelling in no time.
  • Verb conjugation
    Verbs in Greek conjugate according to the subject and the number of subjects in a sentence, the tense, the voice (active and passive voice), and the mood. Therefore, Greek verbs can be found in many forms, which indicate the aforementioned properties. And this can be hard. We know.

    However, once you dig into the grammar rules, you’ll be able to categorize verbs according to their ending, and you’ll quickly become a master of Greek verb conjugation!
  • Noun and adjective declension
    Last, but not least, nouns, pronouns, and adjectives get inflected, too. They showcase different forms according to number, gender, and case. They are also often accompanied by articles, which should agree with the noun.

    This is another aspect that many students find challenging. Nevertheless, this is something that you can overcome easily with proper practice.

3. I Want to Learn Greek. Where Should I Start?

A Sketch of a Head with Post-it Papers

At GreekPod101.com, we’ve mastered self-teaching as a lifelong learning method. Here are our pearls of wisdom for getting started with Greek language learning:

  • Step 1: Start with simple everyday life sentences.
  • Step 2: Try to enhance those sentences with a wider range of vocabulary. Keeping a vocabulary notebook will definitely help.
  • Step 3: Continue with grammar. Focus on the basics of verb, noun, and adjective inflection.
  • Step 4: Enhance your listening skills by watching Greek movies and series.
  • Step 5: Start reading children’s books in Greek. They include very simple sentences and they can really help novice learners.
  • Step 6: Now that you have an understanding of the Greek language, familiarize yourself with syntax and word order. Study different cases, such as subordinate sentences, conditionals, and so on.

4. Useful Advice for Novice Greek-Learners

1. Don’t give up: With consistent studying, you can overcome the difficult parts. 

2. Do practice whenever you are given a chance: Visiting Greece? Or even a Greek restaurant abroad? Don’t be shy! Try ordering and chatting in Greek.

3. Don’t be afraid to make mistakes: It’s a learning experience. Perceive every mistake as an opportunity to learn. 

4. Do try to find Greek communities near you: There’s nothing better than practicing with native speakers. Plus, we bet that you’ll make some new friends!

5. Do plan a trip to Greece: Okay, practicing your Greek might not be your number-one reason to visit Greece, but approach this as a unique opportunity to enjoy crystal-clear beaches, taste delicious food and beverages, and blend in.

5. Why is GreekPod101.com Great for Learning Greek?

GreekPod101 Graphics Demonstrating a Smiling Girl and the Logo

A famous Greek saying goes like this:

Greek: Αν δεν παινέψουμε το σπίτι μας, θα πέσει να μας πλακώσει.
Romanization: An den penépsume to spíti mas, tha pési na mas plakósi.
Translation: “If we don’t praise our home, it will collapse over our heads.”

You saw this coming, didn’t you?

“I bet they’ll promote their website at the end of this article!” you whispered.

However, we assure you: This is not a promotion; it’s encouragement to invest in yourself. 

You can create a free lifetime account on GreekPod101.com and enjoy tons of free video, audio, and PDF lessons, as well as many other benefits.

So, why is GreekPod101.com great for learning Greek?

  • It gets you to speak Greek from day one.
  • It focuses on practical examples, rather than strict grammar rules. 
  • It includes an assessment test to assign you to the most appropriate level and learning path.
  • It allows you to create your own vocabulary lists. 
  • It lets you refresh your knowledge easily and quickly through flashcards.
  • It offers you a wide range of totally free lessons focused on grammar, vocabulary, and listening, categorized by knowledge level.
  • MyTeacher Service: You can create a premium account in order to get access to a personal teacher. This is a unique opportunity to get in touch with an experienced native speaker, who will help you through your learning process.

6. Conclusion

We’d love to hear from you! 

Feel free to share your experience with the Greek language so far in the comments below.

  • Which aspects do you find intriguing?
  • Which was the easiest part of learning Greek?
  • What aspect troubles you the most?

Let us know in the comments!

Start learning Greek today in a consistent and organized manner by creating a free lifetime account on GreekPod101.com. Tons of free vocabulary lists, YouTube videos, and grammar tips are waiting for you.

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The Most Common Mistakes in Learning Greek

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We all make mistakes. That’s a fact. 

When it comes to learning a new language, it’s almost certain that you’ll make numerous mistakes. And mistakes on top of those mistakes. And a few more.

But you’ll learn. It’s all part of the learning process, right?

In this article, we’ll go over the most common mistakes Greek language-learners make. Learn everything you need to know early on, so that you can avoid these mistakes in Greek and sound more like a native speaker.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Greek Table of Contents
  1. Greek Pronunciation Mistakes
  2. Greek Vocabulary Mistakes
  3. Greek Grammar Mistakes
  4. Other Greek Mistakes
  5. The Biggest Mistake
  6. Conclusion

1. Greek Pronunciation Mistakes

A Woman Shutting Her Mouth with Both Hands

The most common mistake in Greek pronunciation is stressing words incorrectly. As a student, you should pay attention to the accent marks, because they’ll help you pronounce Greek words correctly.

At GreekPod101.com, we pay close attention to pronunciation. It’s the key to speaking and sounding like a Greek, after all. Therefore, alongside each and every Greek word in our learning material, we also offer its romanization, along with accent marks.

Another common pronunciation mistake Greek-learners make involves certain consonants. 

For example, English-speaking learners tend to pronounce the consonants τ and π strangely, whereas French-speaking learners struggle to pronounce the consonant ρ. Since our mother tongue determines our pronunciation capabilities, it makes sense that some difficulties may arise. There’s nothing you can’t overcome with practice, though!

Here’s another typical pronunciation mistake: The problem of digraphs. 

Sounds pretty serious, right? Well, it isn’t, as long as you pay attention to the following guidelines.

First and foremost, you’re most likely wondering: “What are digraphs?”

They’re a pair of vowels that are pronounced as one distinct sound. Here, we’ve gathered some of the most common Greek digraphs for you, including examples:

1.1 “Οι” / “οι”

Sounds like: “i” as in the word “info”
Often mistaken as: “o-i”

Example

Greek: Η οικονομία της Ελλάδας πέρασε κρίση.
Romanization: I ikonomía tis Eládas pérase krísi.
Translation: “The economy of Greece has gone through a crisis.”

1.2 “Ει” / “ει”

Sounds like: “i” as in the word “info”
Often mistaken as: “e-i”

Example

Greek: Η παγκόσμια ειρήνη είναι πολύ σημαντική.
Romanization: I pangózmia iríni íne polí simandikí.
Translation: “Worldwide peace is very important.”

1.3 “Αι” / “αι”

Sounds like: “e” as in the word “error”
Often mistaken as: “a-i”

Example

Greek: Οι άνθρωποι έχουν πέντε αισθήσεις.
Romanization:I ánthropi éhun pénde esthísis.
Translation: “Humans have five senses.”

A Woman Holding Her Head with Her Hand in Despair

1.4 “Ευ” / “ευ”

Sounds like: “ev” as in the word “everything” OR “ef” as in the word “effect”
Often mistaken as: “e-i”

Examples

Greek: Σε ευχαριστώ πολύ!
Romanization: Se efharistó polí.
Translation: “Thank you very much.”

Greek: Ο υπάλληλος ήταν πολύ ευγενικός.
Romanization: O ipálilos ítan polí evyenikós.
Translation: “The (male) employee was very polite.”

So, right now, you must be wondering: “How can I tell when this digraph should sound like ‘ev’ or ‘ef’?”

Luckily, there’s a certain rule: 

  • It’s pronounced as “ev” when the next syllable begins with a vowel sound or a voiced consonant sound: β, γ, δ, ζ, λ, μ, ν, ρ, τζ, μπ, ντ, γγ, and γκ.
  • It’s pronounced as “ef” when the next syllable begins with the consonants ξ (x) and ψ (ps), an unvoiced consonant sound (κ, π, τ, χ, φ, θ, σ, and τσ) or when the combination is at the end of a word or by itself (ex. ευ αγωνίζεσθαι (ef agonízesthai), meaning “fair play”).

At first, you should think about this rule every time you encounter this digraph. However, with practice, you’ll be able to recognize how it should sound in each word.

1.5 “Αυ” / “αυ”

Sounds like: “av” as in the word “average” OR “af” as in the word “after”
Often mistaken as “a-i”

Examples

Greek: Αυτός είναι ο δάσκαλός μου.
Romanization: Aftós íne o dáskalós mu.
Translation: “This is my (male) teacher.”

Greek: Θέλεις να πάμε για καφέ αύριο;
Romanization: Thélis na páme ya kafé ávrio?
Translation: “Do you want to go for a coffee tomorrow?”

Similarly to the last digraph, there’s a rule for deciding whether it should sound like “af” or “av.”

  • It’s pronounced as “av” when the next syllable begins with a vowel sound or a voiced consonant sound: β, γ, δ, ζ, λ, μ, ν, ρ, τζ, μπ, ντ, γγ, and γκ.
  • It’s pronounced as “af” when the next syllable begins with the consonants ξ (x) and ψ (ps), an unvoiced consonant sound (κ, π, τ, χ, φ, θ, σ, and τσ), or when the combination is at the end of a word (ex. ταυ, which is the letter “t” in Greek).

2. Greek Vocabulary Mistakes

We could say that the most common vocabulary mistake in Greek is the one demonstrated below.

Greek: Αυτός είναι Έλληνας.

Romanization: Aftós íne Élinas.

Translation: “He is Greek.”
Greek: Αυτή είναι Ελληνίδα.

Romanization: Aftí íne Elinída.

Translation: “She is Greek.”
Greek: Μου αρέσει το ελληνικό φαγητό.

Romanization: Mu arési to elinikó fayitó.

Translation: “I like Greek food.”
Greek: Εγώ μαθαίνω ελληνικά.

Romanization: Egó mathéno eliniká.

Translation: “I learn Greek (language).”

In English, there’s one word that describes the Greek nationality, language, and anything related to Greece. But in Greek, there are different words that need to be used depending on what exactly you’re talking about.

3. Greek Grammar Mistakes

Correcting a Text with a Red Pen

3.1 The Most Common Mistakes Concerning Nouns & Adjectives

Mixing up genders

In Greek, each noun has its own gender (male-female-neuter). This affects not only nouns, but also the accompanying articles and adjectives. 

Male NounFemale NounNeutral Noun
Greek: Ο πράσινος κήπος.
Romanization: O prásinos kípos.
Translation: “The green garden.”
Greek: Η πράσινη τσάντα.
Romanization: I prásini tsánda.
Translation: “The green bag.”
Greek: Το πράσινο χορτάρι.
Romanization: To prásino hortári.
Translation: “The green grass.”

Mixing up singular & plural

In Greek, each noun is either in the singular form or in the plural. This also affects the accompanying articles and adjectives. 

SingularPlural
Greek: Το ωραίο νησί.
Romanization: To oréo nisí.
Translation: “The beautiful island.”
Greek: Τα ωραία νησιά.
Romanization: Ta oréa nisiá.
Translation: “The beautiful islands.”

Mixing up cases

Nouns in Greek get declined, so they might appear slightly different in each case. The most common source of confusion is between the nominative and accusative cases. A rule of thumb is that when the noun is the subject of the sentence, it should be in the nominative case; when it’s the object of the sentence, it should usually be in the accusative case.

NominativeAccusative
Greek: Ο τοίχος είναι άσπρος.
Romanization: O tíhos íne áspros.
Translation: “The wall is white.”
Greek: Εγώ έβαψα τον τοίχο.
Romanization: Egó évapsa ton tího.
Translation: “I painted the wall.”

3.2 The Most Common Mistakes Concerning Verbs

A Woman Wondering in Front of a Laptop

Mixing up the tenses

Verbs conjugate according to the tense. There are also some irregular verbs, which you should learn by heart.

Here are some examples of the most common irregular Greek verbs in the present and past tenses.

Simple PresentSimple Past
βλέπω (vlépo) – “I see”είδα (ída) – “I saw” 
πηγαίνω (piyéno) – “I go”πήγα (píga) – “I went”
βρίσκω (vrísko) – “I find”βρήκα (vríka) – “I found”
λέω (léo) – “I tell”είπα (ípa) – “I told”
τρώω (tróo) – “I eat”έφαγα (éfaga) – “I ate”
πίνω (píno) – “I drink”ήπια (ípia) – “I drank”

Luckily, the Greek tenses are quite similar to the English ones. Therefore, English-speakers won’t find it difficult to decide which tense to use in each situation.

Mixing up the grammatical mood

Greek verbs also conjugate according to the grammatical mood. Here’s a useful guide on how to select the proper mood for each verb:

Indicative mood: This mood indicates that the action or event is true or really happened (i.e. an objective fact).

Greek: Ο μαθητής πηγαίνει στο σχολείο.
Romanization: O mathitís piyéni sto sholío.
Translation: “The student goes to school.”

Subjunctive mood: This mood presents the action or event as something wanted or expected (but isn’t actually happening / didn’t happen). 

Greek: Ο μαθητής πρέπει να πηγαίνει στο σχολείο.
Romanization: O mathitís prépi na piyéni sto sholío.
Translation: “The student should go to school.”

Imperative mood: This mood may express a command (order), request, or desire.

Greek: Πήγαινε στο σχολείο!
Romanization: Píyene sto sholío!
Translation: “Go to school!”

The participle: This is the uninflected form that has an adverbial function, and it may indicate time, manner, cause, condition, etc.

Greek: Πηγαίνοντας στο σχολείο βρήκα ένα στιλό στον δρόμο.
Romanization: Piyénondas sto sholío vríka éna stiló ston drómo.
Translation: “While going to school, I found a pen on the street.”

The infinitive: This is an uninflected form. It’s used for the formation of the perfective tenses: present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect.

Greek: Αύριο ο μαθητής θα πάει στο σχολείο.
Romanization: Ávrio o mathitís tha pái sto scholío.
Translation: “Tomorrow, the student will go to school.”

Mixing up the voice

In Greek, there are two major voices: the active voice and the passive voice. A rule of thumb for determining whether a verb is in the active or passive voice is demonstrated below.

Verbs in the active voice typically end in . Verbs in the passive voice most commonly end in -μαι in the first person. 

Active VoicePassive Voice
Greek: Ο φούρνος ψήνει το παστίτσιο.
Romanization: O fúrnos psíni to pastítsio.
Translation: “The oven bakes the pastitsio.”
Greek: To παστίτσιο ψήνεται από τον φούρνο.
Romanization: Τo pastítsio psínete apó ton fúrno.
Translation: “The pastitsio is baked by the oven.”

Mixing up the persons

Verbs in Greek also conjugate according to the person they refer to, that is, the person(s) who performs the action. 

4. Other Greek Mistakes

In Greek, you use the second person plural—εσείς (esís), meaning “you”—to speak politely and formally with someone. This is usually a person who is superior to you or who you don’t know well. All components of the sentence should agree with the pronoun you use.

A Man Greeting a Woman in a Business Environment
Informal QuestionFormal Question
Greek: Τι κάνεις; Είσαι καλά;
Romanization: Ti kánis? Íse kalá?
Translation: “How are you? Are you well?”
Greek: Τι κάνετε; Είστε καλά;
Romanization: Ti kánete? Íste kalá?
Translation: “How are you? Are you well?”

5. The Biggest Mistake

Sit back and prepare yourself, because we’re about to reveal the biggest mistake a Greek-learner can make: 

Giving Up

Yes, there it is. 

The biggest mistake is simply giving up. 

Greek, especially its grammar, might seem pretty complicated through the eyes of a novice learner. Take a deep breath and just keep practicing!

Here are some tips to help you study Greek in a fun way:


6. Conclusion

Now that you’ve browsed through the most common Greek language mistakes, what mistakes do you usually make when studying Greek?

Let us know in the comments!

Start learning Greek today in a consistent and organized manner by creating a free lifetime account on GreekPod101.com. Tons of free vocabulary lists, YouTube videos, and grammar tips await you.

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The Top 10 Popular Greek Questions and Answers

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“Oh, how can I say this in Greek?”

You’ve been there. We know.

That’s why we’ve created this blog post, featuring the top ten most popular questions and their answers in Greek. 

Whether you’ve just started learning Greek or you’re thinking about it, after reading this guide, you’ll be able to construct simple Greek questions and answers with accuracy. 

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Greek Table of Contents
  1. What’s your name?
  2. Where are you from?
  3. Do you speak Greek?
  4. How long have you been studying Greek?
  5. Have you been to Greece?
  6. What’s the weather like today?
  7. Do you like Greek food?
  8. What are you doing?
  9. What’s wrong?
  10. How much is it?
  11. Conclusion

1. What’s your name?

First Encounter

So, what’s the first thing you want to ask when meeting someone new? Their name, of course. Here’s how to ask someone “What’s your name?” in Greek.

The Question

  • Greek: Πώς σε λένε;
  • Romanization: Pós se léne?
  • Literal Translation: “How are you named?” / “How are you called?”
  • Translation: “What’s your name?”

Unlike in English, which asks “What’s your name?” in Greek, we use the phrase Πώς σε λένε;, which better corresponds to “How are you named?” or “How are you called?” As far as Greek language questions go, this is the simplest and definitely the most popular. It can be useful when getting to know people in an informal setting. 

The Answer

  • Greek: Ναταλία, κι εσένα;
  • Romanization: Natalía, ki eséna?
  • Translation: “Natalia, and you?”

This is the simplest answer you can give. Just state your name, followed by …κι εσένα;, which reverses the question to the individual who asked you. This is considered a decent and polite way to respond, since it shows that you’re interested in getting to know the other person. 

At this point, we should note that the word “and” is translated in Greek as και. However, when the next word begins with a vowel, when speaking, it usually becomes κι. This is very common in Greek, but even if you say και εσένα, nobody will notice.

Here are some other variations that answer the same question:

  • Greek: Με λένε Μαρία. Εσένα;
  • Romanization: Me léne María. Eséna?
  • Literal Translation: “I am named Maria. You?”
  • Translation: “My name is Maria. Yours?”
  • Greek: Είμαι ο Γιώργος. Εσένα πώς σε λένε;
  • Romanization: Íme o Yórgos. Eséna pós se léne?
  • Translation: “I am George. What’s your name?”

To learn more about how to give a full self-introduction, check out our relevant blog post

2. Where are you from?

Two Children Playing with an Educational Globe.

Here’s another popular question, which is a perfect conversation starter.

The Question

  • Greek: Από πού είσαι;
  • Romanization: Apó pu íse?
  • Translation: “Where are you from?”

Generally, you can answer by saying:

 Είμαι από…. + definite article in the accusative case + place.

Here are some examples:

The Answer

  • Greek: Είμαι από την Ελλάδα.
  • Romanization: Íme apó tin Εláda.
  • Translation: “I am from Greece.”
  • Greek: Είμαι από την Αμερική.
  • Romanization: Íme apó tin Amerikí.
  • Translation: “I am from America.”
  • Greek: Είμαι από τον Καναδά.
  • Romanization: Íme apó ton Kanadá.
  • Translation: “I am from Canada.”

As you might have noticed, we say Είμαι από την Αμερική and Είμαι από τον Καναδά. They’re both definite articles, but why are they different?

In Greek, nouns fall into three categories, according to their gender: feminine, masculine, and neutral. So, Αμερική is feminine and Καναδάς is masculine. Therefore, they’re accompanied by the appropriate definite article. 

If you want to learn more about definite articles and their use in Greek, we’ve got you covered. Watch our relevant video

3. Do you speak Greek?

Before starting a conversation with someone, it’s probably a good idea to ask them whether they speak Greek. Here are the Greek questions and answers you can use and expect. 

The Question

  • Greek: Μιλάς ελληνικά;
  • Romanization: Milás eliniká?
  • Translation: “Do you speak Greek?”

The Answer

  • Greek: Ναι, μιλάω λίγο ελληνικά.
  • Romanization: Ne, miláo lígo eliniká.
  • Translation: “Yes, I speak a little Greek.”
  • Greek: Ναι, μιλάω πολύ καλά ελληνικά.
  • Romanization: Ne, miláo polí kalá eliniká.
  • Translation: “Yes, I speak Greek very well.”
  • Greek: Όχι, δεν μιλάω ελληνικά.
  • Romanization: Óhi, den miláo eliniká.
  • Translation: “No, I don’t speak Greek.”

Of course, you can use the same phrase (Μιλάς + language;) to ask someone if they speak any other language.

Introducing Yourself

4. How long have you been studying Greek?

This is one of the easy Greek questions that a foreigner may be asked during a conversation. Here’s how to ask and answer! 

The Question

  • Greek: Πόσο καιρό μαθαίνεις ελληνικά;
  • Romanization: Póso keró mathénis eliniká?
  • Translation: “How long have you been learning Greek?”

The Answer

  • Greek: Mαθαίνω ελληνικά εδώ και 1 χρόνο.
  • Romanization: Mathéno eliniká edó ke énan hróno.
  • Translation: “I have been learning Greek for a year now.”

5. Have you been to Greece?

The Ancient Ruins of Olympia in Greece

Do you want to exchange some travel experience about Greece?

Then simply ask this question. 

The Question

  • Greek: Έχεις επισκεφτεί την Ελλάδα;
  • Romanization: Éhis episkeftí tin Elláda?
  • Translation: “Have you visited Greece?”

The Answer

  • Greek: Ναι, έχω πάει στην Ελλάδα δύο φορές.
  • Romanization: Ne, ého pái stin Eláda dío forés.
  • Translation: “Yes, I have been to Greece twice.”
  • Greek: Δυστυχώς όχι, αλλά θα ήθελα.
  • Romanization: Distihós óhi, alá tha íthela.
  • Translation: “Unfortunately no, but I want to.”

If you’re planning to visit Greece soon, check out our Survival Greek Phrases Series.

6. What’s the weather like today?

Ocean

Greece is blessed with mild weather and a Mediterranean climate. Summer is hot and sunny, whereas winter is not extremely cold. It’s a fact that many locals go swimming at the beach during the winter, as well. 

Here’s how you can ask for info about the weather in Greek. 

The Question

  • Greek: Πώς είναι ο καιρός σήμερα;
  • Romanization: Pós íne o kerós símera?
  • Translation: “How is the weather today?”
  • Greek: Τι καιρό κάνει σήμερα;
  • Romanization: Ti keró káni símera?
  • Translation: “What is the weather like today?”

The Answer

  • Greek: Σήμερα έχει λιακάδα.
  • Romanization: Símera éhi liakáda.
  • Translation: “Today is sunny.”
  • Greek: Σήμερα έχει συννεφιά.
  • Romanization: Símera éhi sinefiá.
  • Translation: “Today is cloudy.”
  • Greek: Σήμερα βρέχει.
  • Romanization: Símera vréhi.
  • Translation: “Today it’s raining.”

Of course, these are just the most basic answers. Learn more about The Weather in Greece or enhance your vocabulary with the Top 15 Weather Conditions

7. Do you like Greek food?

Who doesn’t like Greek cuisine? If you haven’t tried it, it’s a must! 

Just visit a Greek restaurant, or ταβέρνα (tavérna), and try one of the following: pastitsio, mousakas, kleftiko, gemista, gyros, souvlaki, tzatziki, or an authentic Greek salad!

The Question

  • Greek: Σου αρέσει το ελληνικό φαγητό;
  • Romanization: Su arési to ellinikó fayitó?
  • Translation: “Do you like Greek food?”

The Answer

  • Greek: Ναι, μου αρέσει πάρα πολύ!
  • Romanization: Ne, mu arési pára polí!
  • Translation: “Yes, I like it very much!”
  • Greek: Όχι, δεν μου αρέσει.
  • Romanization: Óhi, den mu arési.
  • Translation: “Νο, I don’t like it.”

If you need more information, you can Learn How to Order at a Greek Restaurant.

8. What are you doing?

In Greek culture, questions like this are a typical, informal way to check on someone. This question also corresponds to “How are you?”

The Question

  • Greek: Τι κάνεις;
  • Romanization: Ti kánis?
  • Translation: “What are you doing?” / “How are you?”

The Answer

  • Greek: Είμαι καλά, ευχαριστώ. Εσύ;
  • Romanization: Íme kalá, efharistó. Esí?
  • Translation: “I am fine, thank you. You?”

9. What’s wrong?

In Greece, it’s considered polite to ask someone if they’re okay. However, if you’re not close friends, the most likely answer would be “Everything is fine.”

The Question

  • Greek: Τι έχεις;
  • Romanization: Ti éhis?
  • Translation: “What do you have?” / “What’s wrong?”

The Answer

  • Greek: Τίποτα, είμαι μια χαρά.
  • Romanization: Típota, íme mia hará.
  • Translation: “Nothing, I am fine.”
  • Greek: Δεν είμαι και πολύ καλά.
  • Romanization: Den íme ke polí kalá.
  • Translation: “I’m not doing very well.”

You can learn more about positive and negative emotions in our vocabulary lists. 

10. How much is it?

A Woman Asking for a Price on a Blouse

Last, but not least, you should know how to ask for an item’s price. Below, you can find how to do so in Greek. 

The Question

  • Greek: Πόσο κοστίζει/κάνει αυτό;
  • Romanization: Póso kostízi/káni aftó?
  • Translation: “How much does this cost?”

The Answer

  • Greek: Kοστίζει/Κάνει 10 ευρώ.
  • Romanization: Κostízi/Káni déka evró.
  • Translation: “It costs 10 euros.”

11. Conclusion

These were the most popular questions and their answers in Greek! We hope you’re now more confident about asking questions to your Greek friends or family.

GreekPod101.com offers you high-quality, practical lessons about the Greek language.  

At GreekPod101.com, we aim to provide you with everything you need to know about the Greek language in a fun and interesting way. Stay tuned for more articles like this one, word lists, grammar tips, and even YouTube videos, which are waiting for you to discover!

In the meantime, can you think of any more Greek questions and answers not included in this list? Let us know in the comments, and we’ll surely inform you about their Greek equivalents!

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Basic Greek Sentence Patterns: A Comprehensive Guide


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Okay, we should admit it. 

How about sentence patterns, though?

Yes, I mean versatile Greek sentence patterns, which can be adapted for anything you want to say. That’s exciting, right?

In this article, we’ll focus on practical examples, demonstrating all the basic sentence patterns in Greek. After reading this, you’ll be able to construct simple sentences in Greek, which will certainly be useful whether you’re a beginner or a more advanced learner.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Greek Table of Contents
  1. Linking Two Nouns: A is B
  2. Using Adjectives to Describe a Noun: A is {Adjective}
  3. Expressing Desire: I Want (to)…
  4. Expressing Need: I Need (to)… / I Have to…
  5. Saying What You Like: I Like (to)…
  6. Politely Asking Someone to Do Something: Please…
  7. Asking for Permission: May I…? / Can I…?
  8. Asking for Information About Something: What is…?
  9. Asking About How Something Is: How is…?
  10. Asking About the Time: When is…?
  11. Asking About Location or Position: Where is…?
  12. Conclusion

1. Linking Two Nouns: A is B

Handwritten Sentences in a Notebook

Linking two nouns is pretty easy in Greek. Actually, this sentence pattern resembles its English equivalent. The only difference is the use of articles, which is a standard thing in Greek. 

The key concept here is the verb είμαι (íme), meaning to be, which is used to link two nouns. In most cases, the second noun describes the first one. Be careful, though. All verbs in Greek get conjugated according to the person they refer to. 

Let’s have a look at some Greek sentence examples below: 

  • Greek: Ο Γιάννης είναι κτηνίατρος.
  • Romanization: O Yánis íne ktiníatros.
  • Translation: “John is a veterinarian.”
  • Greek: Η γυναίκα είναι δασκάλα.
  • Romanization: I yinéka íne daskála.
  • Translation: “The woman is a teacher.”
  • Greek: Το ρολόι είναι δώρο.
  • Romanization: To rolói íne dóro.
  • Translation: “The watch is a gift.”

2. Using Adjectives to Describe a Noun: A is {Adjective}


Sentence Patterns

Another alternative that might come in handy is trying to describe a noun with an adjective. This can also be done easily, by simply placing the adjective after the verb είμαι (íme).

Here are some examples:

  • Greek: Το βιβλίο είναι ενδιαφέρον.
  • Romanization: To vivlío íne endiaféron.
  • Translation: “The book is interesting.”
  • Greek: Το φαγητό είναι νόστιμο.
  • Romanization: To fayitó íne nóstimo.
  • Translation: “The food is delicious.”
  • Greek: Η ταινία ήταν τρομακτική.
  • Romanization: I tenía ítan tromaktikí.
  • Translation: “The movie was scary.”

3. Expressing Desire: I Want (to)…


Sentences Written on a Blackboard

The verb θέλω (thélo), meaning “to want,” can be accompanied by a noun as it represents a desire. In addition,  it’s often accompanied by a verb in the subjunctive mood (i.e. by the conjunction να followed by a verb), in order to express the desire to do a certain action. Alternatively, it can be accompanied by a demonstrative pronoun. 

Let’s take a look at some examples of this Greek sentence structure:

  • Greek: Θέλω κοτόπουλο.
  • Romanization: Thélo kotópulo.
  • Translation: “I want chicken.”
  • Greek: Θέλω να κοιμηθώ.
  • Romanization: Thélo na kimithó.
  • Translation: “I want to sleep.”
  • Greek: Θέλω να κάνω μια ερώτηση.
  • Romanization: Thélo na káno mia erótisi.
  • Translation: “I want to ask a question.”
  • Greek: Θέλω αυτό.
  • Romanization: Thélo aftó.
  • Translation: “I want this.”

4. Expressing Need: I Need (to)… / I Have to…


Sentence Components

Unlike in English, the phrase “need to” in Greek is not a synonym for “must.” Instead, it’s used as its literal translation, expressing a necessity. 

Again, in this case, these phrases are often accompanied by a noun or a verb in the subjunctive mood.

Here are some examples of Greek sentences expressing need: 

  • Greek: Χρειάζομαι ένα στυλό.
  • Romanization: Hriázome éna stiló.
  • Translation: “I need a pen.”
  • Greek: Πρέπει να φύγω.
  • Romanization: Prépi na fígo.
  • Translation: “I have to go.”
  • Greek: Πρέπει να πάω στην τουαλέτα.
  • Romanization: Prépi na páo stin tualéta.
  • Translation: “I have to go to the bathroom.”
  • Greek: Πρέπει να εξασκηθώ περισσότερο.
  • Romanization: Prépi na exaskithó perisótero.
  • Translation: “I have to practice more.”

5. Saying What You Like: I Like (to)…


Little Pieces of Paper with Words on Them

Below, you can find some practical Greek sentences for beginners that you can use to describe something that you like. 

Again, when describing an action that you like, the second verb should be in the subjunctive mood.

  • Greek: Μου αρέσεις.
  • Romanization: Mu arésis.
  • Translation: “I like you.”
  • Greek: Μου αρέσει αυτό το βιβλίο.
  • Romanization: Mu arési aftó to vivlío.
  • Translation: “I like this book.”
  • Greek: Μου αρέσει να μαγειρεύω.
  • Romanization: Mu arési na mayirévo.
  • Translation: “I like to cook.”
  • Greek: Μου αρέσει να βλέπω το ηλιοβασίλεμα στην παραλία.
  • Romanization: Mu arési na vlépo to iliovasílema stin paralía.
  • Translation: “I like to watch the sunset at the beach.”

6. Politely Asking Someone to Do Something: Please…

Let’s take a look at some examples of how to form Greek sentences this way: 

  • Greek: Παρακαλώ, καθίστε.
  • Romanization: Parakaló,kathíste.
  • Translation: “Please, sit down.”
  • Greek: Παρακαλώ, περιμένετε στην ουρά.
  • Romanization: Parakaló, periménete stin urá.
  • Translation: “Please, wait in the line.”
  • Greek: Σε παρακαλώ, άκουσέ με.
  • Romanization: Se parakaló, ákusé me.
  • Translation: “Please, listen to me / hear me out.” (informal)

7. Asking for Permission: May I…? / Can I…?


A Woman Studying Greek

Knowing how to ask something politely will surely be useful, whether you’re visiting Greece or talking with your Greek friends. 

Below, you can find some of the most common polite questions. 

  • Greek: Μπορώ να περάσω;
  • Romanization: Boró na peráso?
  • Translation: “May I come in?”
  • Greek: Μπορώ να έχω λίγο νερό;
  • Romanization: Boró na ého lígo neró?
  • Translation: “Can I have some water?”
  • Greek: Μπορώ να έχω τηλέφωνό σου;
  • Romanization: Boró na ého to tiléfonó su?
  • Translation: “Can I have your phone number?”

8. Asking for Information About Something: What is…?

Another important type of question is that used to ask for information about something. The protagonist here is the interrogative pronoun Τι….; (Ti…?), meaning “What…?”

  • Greek: Τι είναι αυτό;
  • Romanization: Ti íne aftó?
  • Translation: “What is this?”
  • Greek: Τι χρώμα είναι το παντελόνι που ήθελες;
  • Romanization: Ti hróma íne to pandelóni pu ítheles?
  • Translation: “What color are the trousers you wanted?”

9. Asking About How Something Is: How is…?

You might be wondering “How do I say this?” Wonder no more – here’s how to ask questions beginning with “How.”

  • Greek: Πώς μπορώ να το πω αυτό;
  • Romanization: Pós boró na to po aftó?
  • Translation: “How can I say this?”
  • Greek: Πώς σε λένε;
  • Romanization: Pos se léne?
  • Translation: “How do they call you?”
  • Meaning: This is the most common way to ask someone for their name. It’s equivalent to “What’s your name?”
  • Greek: Πώς μπορώ να πάω στο ξενοδοχείο;
  • Romanization: Pós boró na páo sto xenodohío?
  • Translation: “How can I get to the hotel?”

10. Asking About the Time: When is…?


A Person Writing Sentences in a Notebook

Being on time is highly appreciated by Greeks. In addition, remembering someone’s birthday is considered a proof of friendship. 

In order to ask questions about when something is, you can follow a general rule: Πότε είναι (Póte íne) + article + noun.

Here are some of the most common relevant questions:

  • Greek: Πότε είναι τα γενέθλιά σου;
  • Romanization: Póte íne ta yenéthliá su?
  • Translation: “When is your birthday?”
  • Greek: Πότε είναι το ραντεβού;
  • Romanization: Póte íne to randevú?
  • Translation: “When is the appointment?”
  • Greek: Πότε είναι η ώρα αναχώρησης της πτήσης μας;
  • Romanization: Póte íne i óra anahórisi tis ptísis mas?
  • Translation: “When is the departure time of our flight?”
  • Greek: Πότε είναι η ώρα άφιξης της πτήσης μας;
  • Romanization: Póte íne i óra áfixis tis ptísis mas?
  • Translation: “When is the arrival time of our flight?”

11. Asking About Location or Position: Where is…?

Last but not least, another useful question is that used to ask where something is. If you’re visiting Greece for the first time, feel free to use the basic questions demonstrated below.

A general rule is: Πού είναι (Pu íne) + article + noun.

  • Greek: Πού είναι η τουαλέτα;
  • Romanization: Pu íne i tualéta?
  • Translation: “Where is the restroom?”
  • Greek: Πού είναι το ασανσέρ;
  • Romanization: Pu íne to asansér?
  • Translation: “Where is the elevator?”

12. Conclusion

Simple Greek language sentences, like those we demonstrated above, can be useful in a wide variety of situations. That’s our goal: To provide you with practical knowledge, which can be learned in an easy and fun way. 

Start learning Greek today in a consistent and organized manner by creating a free lifetime account on GreekPod101.com. Tons of free vocabulary lists, YouTube videos, and grammar tips are waiting to be discovered. 

In the meantime, is there a sentence structure that troubles you? Check out our Must-Know Greek Sentence Structures series. If you have any questions, let us know in the comments, and we’d be happy to help!

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Top 100 Greek Adverbs: A Comprehensive Guide

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In the Greek language, an adverb is an uninflected part of speech, which normally modifies a verb. However, adverbs can also modify adjectives, nouns, and even entire phrases. 

The good news is that these Greek adverbs remain unchanged, regardless of the case, the number, the tense, or any other grammatical phenomenon. And in Greek, where most parts of speech get inflected, this is definitely an assurance.

The bad news—if any—is that there’s a wide variety of adverbs, and it’s nearly impossible for a novice Greek learner to study all of them.  

In this blog post, we’ll guide you through learning the top 100 most common Greek adverbs, along with useful examples of their use. 

First of all, Greek adverbs are divided into five distinct categories:

  • Temporal adverbs. These denote time and frequency, and answer the question “When?”
  • Locative adverbs. These denote place, and answer the question “Where?”
  • Qualitative adverbs. These denote manner and answer the question “How?”
  • Quantitative adverbs. These denote quantity, and answer the question “How much?”
  • Modal adverbs. These denote how certain we are about something through confirmation, hesitation, or negation.

Now, let’s have a look at each of the aforementioned categories in detail. Without further ado, our Greek adverbs list!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Greek Table of Contents
  1. Temporal Adverbs
  2. Locative Adverbs
  3. Qualitative Adverbs
  4. Quantitative Adverbs
  5. Modal Adverbs
  6. Conclusion

1. Temporal Adverbs

Top Verbs

If you’re wondering “When?”, then the first answer that will probably pass through your mind is an adverb. 

In Greek, Πότε; (Pόte?), meaning “When?”, is a very common question in everyday life. From arranging a business appointment to asking for transportation information, temporal adverbs will surely come in handy.

1Greek: σήμερα
Romanization: símera
Translation: “today”
Example:

Greek: Σήμερα δεν κάνει τόσο κρύο.
Romanization: Símera den káni tóso krío.
Translation: “Today is not that cold.”
2Greek: αύριο
Romanization: ávrio
Translation: “tomorrow”
Example:

Greek: Θα πάμε για ψώνια αύριο.
Romanization: Tha páme ya psónia ávrio.
Translation: “We’ll go shopping tomorrow.”
3Greek: μεθαύριο
Romanization: methávrio
Translation: “the day after tomorrow”
Example:

Greek: Εάν δεν μπορείς αύριο, πάμε μεθαύριο.
Romanization: Εán den borís ávrio, páme methávrio.
Translation: “If you can’t tomorrow, let’s go on the day after tomorrow.”
4Greek: χθες
Romanization: hthes
Translation: “yesterday”
Example:

Greek: Χθες ήμουν άρρωστη, αλλά σήμερα είμαι καλύτερα.
Romanization: Hthes ímun árrosti, alá símera íme kalítera.
Translation: “Yesterday I was sick, but today I’m better.”
5Greek: τώρα
Romanization: tóra
Translation: “now”
Example:

Greek: Δεν γίνεται να μιλήσουμε τώρα, γιατί είμαι απασχολημένος.
Romanization: Den yínete na milísume tóra, yiatí íme apasholiménos.
Translation: “We can’t talk now because I am busy.”
6Greek: αργότερα
Romanization: argótera
Translation: “later”
Example:

Greek: Παρακαλώ, προσπαθήστε ξανά αργότερα.
Romanization: Parakaló, prospathíste xaná argótera.
Translation: “Please, try again later.”
7Greek: σύντομα Romanization: síndoma Translation: “shortly” / “soon”Example:

Greek: Θα λάβετε μια απάντηση σύντομα.
Romanization: Tha lávete mia apándisi síndoma.
Translation: “You’ll receive an answer shortly.”
8Greek: τότε
Romanization: tóte
Translation: “then”
Example:

Greek: Έλα το απόγευμα. Τότε θα έχω χρόνο.
Romanization: Éla to apóyevma. Tóte tha ého hróno.
Translation: “Come in the afternoon. I’ll have time then.”
9Greek: αργά
Romanization: argá
Translation: “late”
Example:

Greek: Δεν μπορώ να έρθω, γιατί είναι πολύ αργά.
Romanization: Den boró na értho, yiatí íne polí argá.
Translation: “I can’t come because it’s too late.”
10Greek: νωρίς
Romanization: norís
Translation: “early”
Example:

Greek: Κάθε μέρα ξυπνάω νωρίς το πρωί.
Romanization: Káthe méra xipnáo norís to proí.
Translation: “Every day, I wake up early in the morning.”
11Greek: φέτος
Romanization: fétos
Translation: “this year”
Example:

Greek: Φέτος ξεκίνησα να μαθαίνω ελληνικά.
Romanization: Fétos xekínisa na mathéno eliniká.
Translation: “This year, I began learning Greek.”
12Greek: πέρυσι
Romanization: périsi
Translation: “last year”
Example:

Greek: Πέρυσι ήταν η καλύτερη χρονιά της ζωής μου! 
Romanization: Périsi ítan i kalíteri hroniá tis zoís mu!
Translation: “Last year was the best year of my life!”
13Greek: μόλις
Romanization: mólis
Translation: “as soon as”
Example:

Greek: Απάντησα στο μήνυμά σου μόλις το έλαβα. 
Romanization: Apánisa sto mínimá su mólis to élava.
Translation: “I answered your message as soon as I got it.”
14Greek: μετά
Romanization: metá
Translation: “after”
Example:

Greek: Μπορούμε να πάμε για φαγητό μετά τη δουλειά. Τι λες; 
Romanization: Borúme na páme ya fayitó metá ti duliá. Ti les?
Translation: “We can go for lunch after work. What do you say?”
15Greek: πριν
Romanization: prin
Translation: “before”
Example:

Greek: Θα σε πάρω τηλέφωνο πριν κοιμηθώ.
Romanization: Tha se páro tiléfono prin kimithó.
Translation: “I’ll call you before I go to sleep.”
16Greek: απόψε
Romanization: apópse
Translation: “tonight”
Example:

Greek: Απόψε είναι το πάρτι γενεθλίων μου.
Romanization: Apópse íne to párti yenethlíon mu.
Translation: “Tonight is my birthday party.
17Greek: έγκαιρα / εγκαίρως
Romanization: éngera / engéros
Translation: “in time”
Example:

Greek: Θα σε ειδοποιήσω εγκαίρως.
Romanization: Tha se idopiíso engéros.
Translation: “I’ll notify you in time.”
18Greek: ξανά
Romanization: xaná
Translation: “again”

This is often used as a verb prefix meaning “re-,” such as in “redo,” to denote an action being done again.
Example:

Greek: Εάν δεν είναι σωστό, κάνε το ξανά (or ξανακάνε το).
Romanization: Eán den íne sostó, káne to xaná (or xanakáne to).
Translation: “If it’s not correct, do it again / redo it.”

Useful expressions:

Greek: Ξανά και ξανά.
Romanization: Xaná ke xaná.
Translation: “Over and over again.”

Greek: Ποτέ ξανά!
Romanization: Poté xaná!
Translation: “Never again!”
19Greek: πάλι
Romanization: páli
Translation: “again”

It’s usually used when “again” implies the speaker’s frustration, but never as a verb prefix.
Example:

Greek: Πάλι δεν έκανες τις ασκήσεις σου;
Romanization: Páli den ékanes tis askísis su?
Translation: “You haven’t done your homework again?”

Useful expressions:

Greek: Όχι πάλι!
Romanization: Óhi páli!
Translation: “Not again!”

Greek: Άντε πάλι!
Romanization: Áde páli!
Translation: “There we go again!”
20Greek: ήδη
Romanization: ídi
Translation: “already”
Example:

Greek: Σε έχω συγχωρήσει ήδη πολλές φορές.
Romanization: Se ého sinhorísi ídi polés forés.
Translation: “I have already forgiven you many times.”

1.1 Adverbs of Frequency

Another common time-related question is Πόσο συχνά; (Póso sihná?), meaning “How often?” The answer, in this case, regularly includes some of the following adverbs in Greek.

2122232425
Greek: ποτέ
Romanization: poté
Translation: “never”
Greek: σπάνια / σπανίως
Romanization: spánia / spaníos
Translation: “rarely”
Greek: συχνά
Romanization: sihná
Translation: “often”
Greek: συνήθως
Romanization: siníthos
Translation: “usually”
Greek: πάντα
Romanization: páda
Translation: “always”

You may encounter the above adverbs in questionnaires, so they are really useful. 

Another adverb of frequency is:

26Greek: διαρκώς
Romanization: diarkós
Translation: “constantly”
Example:

Greek: Σταμάτα! Με ενοχλείς διαρκώς.
Romanization: Stamáta! Me enohís diarkós.
Translation: “Stop it! You are constantly bothering me.”

When it comes to the cost of a service, the following adverbs are usually used to determine payment methods.

272829303132
Greek: ωριαίως
Romanization: oriéos
Translation: “hourly”
Greek: ημερησίως
Romanization: imerisíos
Translation: “daily” / “on a daily basis”
Greek: καθημερινά / καθημερινώς
Romanization: kathimeriná / kathimerinós
Translation: “daily” / “every day”
Greek: εβδομαδιαίως
Romanization: evdomadiéos
Translation: “weekly”
Greek: μηνιαίως
Romanization: miniéos
Translation: “monthly”
Greek: ετησίως
Romanization: etisíos
Translation: “annually”

For example:

Greek: Για την υπηρεσία αυτή θα χρεωθείτε ωριαίως / ημερησίως / εβδομαδιαίως / μηνιαίως / ετησίως .

Romanization: Ya tin ipiresía aftí tha hreothíte oriéos / imerisíos / evdomadiéos /  miniéos / etisíos.

Translation: “For this service, you will be charged hourly / daily / weekly / monthly / annually.”

2. Locative Adverbs

In this category fall the adverbs answering the question Πού; (Pu?), or “Where?”

A Map of Greece within Europe
33Greek: εδώ
Romanization: edó
Translation: “here”
Example:

Greek: Έλα εδώ. Θέλω να σου πω κάτι.
Romanization: Éla edó. Thélo na su po káti.
Translation: “Come here. I want to tell you something.”
34Greek: εκεί
Romanization: ekí
Translation: “there”
Example:

Greek: Βλέπεις το μεγάλο βουνό εκεί; Ονομάζεται Όλυμπος.
Romanization: Vlépis to megálo vunó ekí? Onomázete Ólimbos.
Translation: “Do you see that big mountain over there? It’s called Olympus.”
35Greek: παντού
Romanization: pandú
Translation: “everywhere”
Example:

Greek: Στo νησί βλέπεις χαμογελαστούς ανθρώπους παντού.
Romanization: Sto nisí vlépis hamoyelastús anthrópus pandú.
Translation: “On the island, you can see smiling people everywhere.”
36Greek: κάπου
Romanization: kápu
Translation: “somewhere”
Example:

Greek: Έχασα το κινητό μου. Κάπου πρέπει να το ξέχασα.
Romanization: Éhasa to kinitó mu. Kápu prépi na to xéhasa.
Translation: “I have lost my mobile phone. I must have forgotten it somewhere.”
37Greek: πουθενά
Romanization: puthená
Translation: “nowhere” / “somewhere” (in questions)
Examples:

Greek: Δεν μπορώ να το βρω πουθενά.
Romanization: Den boró na to vro puthená.
Translation: “I can’t find it anywhere.”

Greek: Είδες πουθενά τα κλειδιά μου;
Romanization: Ídes puthená ta klidiá mu?
Translation: “Did you see my keys somewhere?”
38Greek: μέσα
Romanization: mésa
Translation: “inside” / “in” / “within”
Examples:

Greek: Έψαξα μέσα και έξω από το σπίτι.
Romanization: Épsaxa mésa ke éxo apó to spíti.
Translation: “I searched inside and outside the house.”

Greek: Το ασανσέρ χάλασε, γιατί πηγαίνει πάνω κάτω χωρίς σταματημό όλη μέρα.
Romanization: To asansér hálase, yatí piyéni páno káto horís stamatimó óli méra.
Translation: “The elevator broke down because it goes up and down without stopping all day long.”

Greek: Όταν περνάω τον δρόμο, κοιτάω δεξιά και αριστερά.
Romanization: Ótan pernáo ton drómo, kitáo dexiá ke aristerá.
Translation: “When I cross the street, I look right and left.”
39Greek: έξω
Romanization: éxo
Translation: “outside” / “out”
40Greek: πάνω
Romanization: páno
Translation: “up” / “over” / “on”
41Greek: κάτω
Romanization: káto
Translation: “down” / “under” / “beneath”
42Greek: δεξιά
Romanization: dexiá
Translation: “right”
43Greek: αριστερά
Romanization: aristerá
Translation: “left”
44Greek: δίπλα
Romanization: dípla
Translation: “next to” / “nearby”
Examples:

Greek: Το ξενοδοχείο είναι δίπλα στην τράπεζα.
Romanization: To xenodohío íne dípla stin trápeza.
Translation: “The hotel is next to the bank.”

Greek: Το ξενοδοχείο είναι εδώ δίπλα.
Romanization: To xenodohío íne edó dípla.
Translation: “The hotel is nearby.”

Greek: Ο Γιάννης είναι δίπλα μου.
Romanization: O Yánis íne dípla mu.
Translation: “John is next to me.”
45Greek: μακριά
Romanization: makriá
Translation: “far”
Example:

Greek: Το σπίτι μου δεν είναι μακριά από το κέντρο της πόλης.
Romanization: To spíti mu den íne makriá apó to kédro tis pólis.
Translation: “My home is not far from the city center.”
46Greek: κοντά
Romanization: kondá
Translation: “near”
Example:

Greek: Το σπίτι μου είναι κοντά στη θάλασσα.
Romanization: To spíti mu íne kondá sti thálasa.
Translation: “My home is near the sea.”
47Greek: απέναντι
Romanization: apénandi
Translation: “across”
Example:

Greek: Απέναντι από το ξενοδοχείο βρίσκεται ένα καλό εστιατόριο.
Romanization: Apénandi apó to xenodohío vrískete éna kaló estiatório.
Translation: “Across from the hotel, there’s a good restaurant.”
48Greek: πίσω
Romanization: píso
Translation: “behind” / “back”
Example:

Greek: Πίσω από το φαρμακείο βρίσκεται ένα ιδιωτικό πάρκινγκ.
Romanization: Píso apó to farmakío vrískete éna idiotikó párking.
Translation: “Behind the pharmacy, there’s private parking.”
49Greek: μπροστά
Romanization: brostá
Translation: “in front of”
Example:

Greek: Μπροστά από το σχολείο βρίσκεται ένα όμορφο πάρκο.
Romanization: Brostá apó to scholío vrískete éna ómorfo párko.
Translation: “In front of the school, there’s a beautiful park.”
50Greek: ψηλά
Romanization: psilá
Translation: “(up) high”
Example:

Greek: Κοίταξα ψηλά στον ουρανό και είδα ένα εξωτικό πουλί.
Romanization: Κítaxa psilá ston uranó ke ída éna exotikó pulí.
Translation: “I looked high up in the sky and I saw an exotic bird.”
51Greek: χαμηλά
Romanization: hamilá
Translation: “(down) low”
Example:

Greek: Κοίταξα χαμηλά και είδα ένα μικρό γατάκι στο πεζοδρόμιο.
Romanization: Κítaxa hamilá ke ída éna gatáki sto pezodrómio.
Translation: “I looked down low and I saw a kitty on the pavement.”
52Greek: μεταξύ
Romanization: metaxí
Translation: “between”

This is followed by a noun in genitive case, as demonstrated in the example.
Example:

Greek: Μεταξύ των δύο σπιτιών υπήρχε ένας φράχτης.
Romanization: Metaxí ton dío spitión ipírhe énas fráhtis.
Translation: “Between the two houses, there was a fence.”
53Greek: ανάμεσα
Romanization: anámesa
Translation: “between”

This adverb is followed by the preposition σε, which is often integrated in the article, becoming στον (masculine) / στη(ν) (feminine) / στο (neutral).
Example:

Greek: Ανάμεσα στα δύο σπίτια υπήρχε ένας φράχτης.
Romanization: Anámesa sta dío spítia ipírhe énas fráhtis.
Translation: “Between the houses, there was a fence.”
54Greek: γύρω
Romanization: yíro
Translation: “around”
Example:

Greek: Γύρω από το δέντρο υπήρχαν πολλές μέλισσες.
Romanization: Υíro apó to déndro ipírhan polés mélises.
Translation: “Around the tree, there were many bees.”
55Greek: αλλού
Romanization: alú
Translation: “someplace else” / “somewhere else”
Example:

Greek: Αυτό το εστιατόριο είναι γεμάτο. Πάμε αλλού.
Romanization: Aftó to estiatório íne yemáto. Páme alú.
Translation: “This restaurant is full. Let’s go someplace else.”
56Greek: βόρεια
Romanization: vória
Translation: “north”
Example:

Greek: Η Ελλάδα είναι ένα σταυροδρόμι πολιτισμών. Ανατολικά συνορεύει με την Τουρκία, δυτικά με την Ιταλία, βόρεια με τη Βουλγαρία, βορειοδυτικά με την Αλβανία και νότια με την Αφρική.
Romanization: I Elláda íne éna stavrodrómi politizmón. Anatoliká sinorévi me tin Turkía, ditiká me tin Italía, vória me ti Vulgaría, vorioditiká me tin Alvanía ke nótia me tin Afrikí.
Translation: “Greece is a crossroad of cultures. It borders Turkey to the east, Italy to the west, Bulgaria to the north, Albania to the northwest, and Africa to the south.”
57Greek: νότια
Romanization: nótia
Translation: “south”
58Greek: ανατολικά
Romanization: anatoliká
Translation: “east”
59Greek: δυτικά
Romanization: ditiká
Translation: “west”
60Greek: βορειοδυτικά
Romanization: ditiká
Translation: “southwest”

If you want to learn more phrases about giving directions in Greek, we highly recommend that you check out our relevant blog post.

3. Qualitative Adverbs

Similarly, the adverbs of this category answer the question Πώς; (Pos?), meaning “How?” 

A Woman Wondering How
61Greek: αργά
Romanization: argá
Translation: “slowly”
Example:

Greek: Οδηγάς πολύ γρήγορα. Πήγαινε πιο αργά.
Romanization: Odigás polí grígora. Píyene pio argá.
Translation: “You are driving very quickly. Go more slowly.”
62Greek: γρήγορα
Romanization: grígora
Translation: “quickly”
63Greek: προσεκτικά
Romanization: prosektiká
Translation: “carefully”
Example:

Greek: Να μη διαβάζεις απρόσεκτα. Να διαβάζεις προσεκτικά, για να καταλαβαίνεις.
Romanization: Na mi diavázis aprósekta. Na diavázis prosektiká, ya na katalavénis.
Translation: “You shouldn’t study without paying attention. You should study carefully in order to understand.”
64Greek: απρόσεκτα
Romanization: aprósekta
Translation: “carelessly” / “without paying attention”
65Greek: ήσυχα
Romanization: ísiha
Translation: “quietly”
Example:

Greek: Το βράδυ προσπαθώ να μπαίνω στο σπίτι ήσυχα, για να μη σε ξυπνήσω.
Romanization: To vrádi prospathó na béno sto spíti ísiha, ya na mi se xipníso.
Translation: “During the night, I try to enter the house quietly so I won’t wake you up.”
66Greek: χαρούμενα
Romanization: harúmena
Translation: “happily”
Example:

Greek: Ο σκύλος με κοιτά χαρούμενα όταν έρχομαι στο σπίτι και λυπημένα όταν φεύγω. 
Romanization: O skílos me kitá harúmena ótan érhome sto spíti ke lipiména ótan févgo.
Translation: “The dog looks at me happily when I come home and sadly when I leave.”
67Greek: λυπημένα
Romanization: lipiména
Translation: “sadly”
68Greek: εύκολα
Romanization: éfkola
Translation: “easily”
Example:

Greek: Μπορείς να μπεις εύκολα σε έναν λαβύρινθο, όμως βγαίνεις δύσκολα
Romanization: Borís na bis éfkola se énan lavírintho, ómos vyénis dískola.
Translation: “You can enter a labyrinth easily, but you get out of it with difficulty.”
69Greek: δύσκολα
Romanization: dískola
Translation: “with difficulty”
70Greek: κυριολεκτικά
Romanization: kiriolektiká
Translation: “literally”
Example:

Greek: Αυτό το είπα μεταφορικά. Δεν μιλούσα κυριολεκτικά.
Romanization: Aftó to ípa metaforiká. Den milúsa kiriolektiká.
Translation: “I said this metaphorically. I wasn’t talking literally.”
71Greek: μεταφορικά
Romanization: metaforiká
Translation: “metaphorically”
72Greek: έτσι
Romanization: étsi
Translation: “this/that way” “like this/that”
Example:

Greek: ⁠—Πώς θέλετε να σας κόψω τα μαλλιά; —Έτσι.
Romanization: Pós thélete na sas kópso ta maliá? Étsi. 
Translation: “—How would you like me to cut your hair? —This way.”
73Greek: κάπως
Romanization: kápos
Translation: “somehow”
Example:

Greek: Κάπως πρέπει να συναντηθούμε.
Romanization: Κápos prépi na sinadithúme. 
Translation: “We have to meet somehow.”
74Greek: καλά / καλώς
Romanization: kalá / kalós
Translation: “well” / “good”
Example:

Greek: —Το ραντεβού σας είναι αύριο το απόγευμα. —Καλώς.
Romanization: To randevú sas íne ávrio to apóyevma. Kalós.
Translation: “Your appointment is for tomorrow afternoon. – Good.”
75Greek: κακά / κακώς
Romanization: kaká / kakós
Translation: “badly” / “bad”
Example:

Greek: Κακώς δεν του είπες ότι θα αργήσεις.
Romanization: Kakós den tu ípes óti tha aryísis.
Translation: “It was bad that you didn’t tell him you’ll be late.”
76Greek: ξαφνικά
Romanization: xafniká
Translation: “suddenly”
Example:

Greek: Ξαφνικά ο ουρανός σκοτείνιασε και άρχισε να βρέχει.
Romanization: Χafniká o uranós skotíniase ke árhise na vréhi.
Translation: “Suddenly, the sky darkened and it started raining.”
77Greek: ωραία
Romanization: oréa
Translation: ” nicely” / “nice”
Example:

Greek: Αυτή τη φορά πέρασα πολύ ωραία στην εκδρομή μας. Την προηγούμενη φορά ήμουν άρρωστος και πέρασα πολύ άσχημα
Romanization: Aftí ti forá pérasa polí oréa stin ekdromí mas. Tin proigúmeni forá ímun árostos ke pérasa polí áshima.
Translation: “This time, I had a nice time on our excursion. Last time, I was sick and I had a bad time.”
78Greek: άσχημα
Romanization: áshima
Translation: “badly” / “bad”
79Greek: μαζί
Romanization: mazí
Translation: “together”
Example:

Greek: Πήγατε μαζί σινεμά;
Romanization: Pígate mazí sinemá?
Translation: “Did you go to the cinema together?”
80Greek: ευτυχώς
Romanization: eftihós
Translation: “fortunately” / “luckily”
Example:

Greek: Ευτυχώς η άσκηση ήταν εύκολη, όμως δεν πρόλαβα να την κάνω δυστυχώς.
Romanization: Eftihós i áskisi ítan éfkoli, ómos den prólava na tin káno distihós.
Translation: “Fortunately, the assignment was easy; but unfortunately, I didn’t get it done. “
81Greek: δυστυχώς
Romanization: distihós
Translation: “unfortunately”

4. Quantitative Adverbs

As you might have guessed, adverbs of quantity answer the question Πόσο; (Póso), or “How much?”

A Plate with Three Peas

Here are some of the most popular answers:

82838485868788
Greek: τόσο
Romanization: tóso
Translation: “that much
Greek: λίγο
Romanization: lígo
Translation: “(a) little”
Greek: πολύ
Romanization: polí
Translation: “very” / “much” / “too”
Greek: αρκετά
Romanization: arketá
Translation: “enough”
Greek: λιγότερο
Romanization: ligótero
Translation: “less”
Greek: περισσότερο
Romanization: perisótero
Translation: “more”
Greek: καθόλου
Romanization: kathólu
Translation: “(not) at all”

Now, let’s have a look at some more adverbs of quantity, along with some examples.+

89Greek: μόνο
Romanization: móno
Translation: “only” / “just”

This adverb is usually accompanied by other relevant adverbs of quantity, such as τόσο (tóso) and λίγο (lígo).
Example:

Greek: Έφαγα λίγο μόνο και δεν χόρτασα.
Romanization: Éfaga lígo móno ke den hórtasa.
Translation: “I ate just a little and I didn’t get full.”
90Greek: περίπου
Romanization: perípu
Translation: “approximately” / “about”

This adverb is usually accompanied by other relevant adverbs of quantity, such as τόσο (tóso).
Example:

Greek: Έφαγα τόσο περίπου και δεν χόρτασα.
Romanization: Éfaga tóso perípu ke den hórtasa.
Translation: “I ate about that much and I didn’t get full.” (while demonstrating the quantity)
91Greek: σχεδόν
Romanization: shedón
Translation: “almost” / “nearly”

This adverb is usually accompanied by other relevant adverbs of quantity, such as τόσο (tóso).
Example:

Greek: Έφαγε σχεδόν όλα τα μπισκότα.
Romanization: Éfaye schedón óla ta biskóta.
Translation: “He ate almost all the cookies.”

5. Modal Adverbs

Adverbs denoting confirmation, hesitation, or negation typically answer Yes/No questions, or they can be used to express agreement or disagreement in general.

A Woman Holding Yes and No Signs

5.1 Confirmation Adverbs

92939495
Greek: ναι
Romanization: ne
Translation: “yes”
Greek: σίγουρα
Romanization: sígura
Translation: “surely” / “for sure”
Greek: βέβαια / βεβαίως
Romanization: vévea / vevéos
Translation: “certainly”
Greek: μάλιστα
Romanization: málista
Translation: “indeed”

5.2 Hesitation Adverbs

9697
Greek: ίσως
Romanization: ísos
Translation: “maybe”
Greek: πιθανόν
Romanization: pithanón
Translation: “perhaps” / “probably”

5.3 Negation Adverbs

9899100
Greek: όχι
Romanization: óhi
Translation: “no”
Greek: δεν
Romanization: den
Translation: “not” (with a verb in the indicative mood)
Greek: μη(ν)
Romanization: min
Translation: “not” (with a verb in the subjunctive mood)

6. Conclusion

Learning how to describe various actions is an integral part of your studies. In this article, we’ve tried to cover a wide range of modern Greek adverbs which will be useful in everyday life.

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