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Lesson Transcript

Becky: Hello everyone and welcome back to GreekPod101.com. This is Lower Intermediate, Season 1, lesson 12, Writing Well in Greek Is Hard Work! I’m Becky.
Stefania: And I’m Stefania.
Becky: In this lesson, you’ll learn more about word formation in Greek, with a focus on prefixes used in the composition of words.
Stefania: The conversation takes place at the office of the daily Greek newspaper, and it’s between Antonia and her supervisor and senior editor Kostas Giannoulatos.
Becky: Because of the difference in their status in the company, there is both formal and informal Greek in the conversation.
Αντωνία: Κ. Γιαννουλάτε, μήπως κοιτάξατε το κομμάτι για το κοσμηματοπωλείο;
Κώστας: Ναι, το είδα. Δεν νομίζω ότι θα χρειαστεί να το ξαναγράψεις.
Αντωνία: Α, χαίρομαι!
Κώστας: Αυτό δεν σημαίνει ότι δεν έχει και τα προβληματάκια του, όμως!
Αντωνία: Δηλαδή; Αμέλησα ή παρέβλεψα κάτι;
Κώστας: Όχι ακριβώς. Αλλά... ας πούμε, στην πρώτη παράγραφο λες «Ήταν ευτύχημα που ο καταστηματάρχης δεν ήταν στο μαγαζί, γιατί έτσι αποφεύχθηκε η πιθανότητα βίας».
Αντωνία: Ναι. Υπάρχει κάτι άσχημο σ' αυτό;
Κώστας: Δεν είναι ακριβώς «άσχημο», αλλά είναι καλύτερα να αποφεύγεις εκφράσεις όπως «ήταν ευτύχημα». Δίνουν μια λαϊκίστικη διάσταση. Είπαμε: μόνο τα γεγονότα!
Αντωνία: Ναι, αλλά δε θέλουμε το κομμάτι να γίνει απάνθρωπο!
Κώστας: Δεν είπα αυτό! Όμως τώρα είναι κάπως ανισόρροπο.
Αντωνία: Χμμμ... Ο επίλογος πώς είναι;
Κώστας: Ο επίλογος είναι καλός. Νομίζω, ότι είναι καλύτερα αν θες να εκφράσεις την προσωπική σου άποψη, να το κάνεις εκεί.
Αντωνία: ΟΚ. Θα το ξανακοιτάξω άλλη μια φορά.
Κώστας: Καλό θα ήταν.
Antonia: Mr. Giannoulatos, did you by any chance check the copy about the jewelry shop?
Kostas: Yes, I saw it. I don't think you will need to rewrite it.
Antonia: Oh, I'm glad!
Kostas: This doesn't mean that it doesn't have its own small problems, though!
Antonia: So...did I neglect or overlook something?
Kostas: Not exactly. But...for example, in the first paragraph, you say "It was fortunate that the shop-owner was not at the store, thus the risk of violence was avoided."
Antonia: Right. Is there something bad with that?
Kostas: Not exactly "bad." But it's better to avoid expressions like "it was fortunate." They give out a populist aspect. Like we said: just the facts!
Antonia: Yes, but we don't want the story to become inhuman.
Kostas: I didn't say that! But now it's somehow unbalanced.
Antonia: Hmmm... How's the epilogue?
Kostas: The epilogue is good. I think if you want to express your personal opinion, it's better to do it there.
Antonia: OK. I'll go through it one more time...
Kostas: That would be good...
Becky: So here we see editing in action, huh?
Stefania: Sort of…
Becky: Not surprising, this is a newspaper after all.
Stefania: You’d be surprised! Many people complain about the language used in media.
Becky: Well, people have high expectations. They should! I mean, with Greek being such an old language and such.
Stefania: That’s true. Many things in Modern Greek come from ancient Greek and the variations that it went through over the last 30 centuries or so.
Becky: Is modern Greek a mixture of all these variations?
Stefania: I would say it’s more like the result of a long and very dynamic process of language evolution.
Becky: That’s why it’s fun to learn!
Stefania: I agree!
BBecky: Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Stefania: αμελώ [natural native speed]
Becky: to neglect
Stefania: αμελώ [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania: αμελώ [natural native speed]
Stefania: παραβλέπω [natural native speed]
Becky: to overlook
Stefania: παραβλέπω [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania: παραβλέπω [natural native speed]
Stefania: παράγραφος [natural native speed]
Becky: paragraph
Stefania: παράγραφος [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania: παράγραφος [natural native speed]
Stefania: βία [natural native speed]
Becky: violence
Stefania: βία [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania: βία [natural native speed]
Stefania: άσχημος [natural native speed]
Becky: ugly/bad
Stefania: άσχημος [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania: άσχημος [natural native speed]
Stefania: γεγονός [natural native speed]
Becky: fact/event
Stefania: γεγονός [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania: γεγονός [natural native speed]
Stefania: ευτύχημα [natural native speed]
Becky: fortunate/good luck
Stefania: ευτύχημα [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania: ευτύχημα [natural native speed]
Stefania: έκφραση [natural native speed]
Becky: expression
Stefania: έκφραση [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania: έκφραση [natural native speed]
Stefania: ανισόρροπος [natural native speed]
Becky: unbalanced, unstable
Stefania: ανισόρροπος [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania: ανισόρροπος [natural native speed]
Stefania: επίλογος [natural native speed]
Becky: epilogue
Stefania: επίλογος [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania: επίλογος [natural native speed]
Becky: Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Stefania: The first word is “άσχημο” meaning “ugly”.
Becky: So it’s an adjective.
Stefania: Yes. It also has a secondary meaning. It can also mean “bad”.
Becky: For example?
Stefania: Like in our dialogue. It is used in relation to an article “Υπάρχει κάτι άσχημο σ’ αυτό;”
Becky: Which means “Is there something bad with that?”
Stefania: Exactly!
Becky: Do you have examples with the meaning “ugly”?
Stefania: Let’s say you go to a gallery and you see a really ugly painting. Then you can say: “Ο πίνακας αυτός είναι πολύ άσχημος.”
Becky: Meaning “This painting is very ugly”. So we can use this in many situations.
Stefania: Yes, for food, places and so on.
Becky: OK. What else do we have?
Stefania: The noun “γεγονός” means “fact”, something that happened, or “event” just like in our sample sentence “Τα πρόσφατα γεγονότα τον ανάγκασαν να παραιτηθεί”.
Becky: Meaning “The recent events forced him to resign”.
Stefania: Right. And finally, we have the feminine noun “βία” literally meaning “violence”. In the expression “βίαιο έγκλημα”, which means “violent crime”, the suffix “-αιο” is added to the stem “βι-“ to create an adjective.
Becky: Anything special about this noun?
Stefania: We can use it metaphorically to denote “urgency” as in the expression “δεν υπάρχει βία” which means “there is no rush”, in other words, rush to do something specific.
Becky: Got it. Okay, now onto the grammar.
Becky: In this lesson, you’ll learn about various prefixes.
Stefania: And especially ones used in word composition. Remember derivation?
Becky: Of course! Words produced from other words, usually by adding suffixes at the end.
Stefania: Very good. But do you remember that words are also produced by composition?
Becky: Yes, this means they are created by combining words, right?
Stefania: You’re getting good at this!
Becky: It’s because I’ve been reviewing the lesson notes from the previous lessons! So what about composition? Do we just throw words together and see what sticks?
Stefania: (laughs) Of course not! There are many ways we can combine words, but in this lesson, we will deal with how we add prefixes to some words to create other words.
Becky: So it’s like the suffixes we saw in the previous lessons…
Stefania: Yes, but now we add syllables at the beginning, not at the end.
Becky: And what are these syllables?
Stefania: Most are prepositions and some others are particles.
Becky: OK. Give us some examples!
Stefania: Sure. The most common is the privative particle “α-“
Becky: As in the first letter of the alphabet?
Stefania: Yes. If you put it in front of a word, it usually turns it into the negative or opposite thing. For example, “άσχημος”, which we saw previously, means “ugly”, right?
Becky: Yes.
Stefania: If you analyze this word, we have the privative “α-“ and the base word “σχήμα” meaning “shape” or “form”. The notion here is that something is without form.
Becky: So something has an ugly shape.
Stefania: Exactly!
Becky: This is easy. Another example of a prefix?
Stefania: Sure. The very common “ευ-“.
Becky: Where does that come from?
Stefania: In ancient Greek “ευ-“ meant “good”, so today, words that start with it, have that notion of “good”. For example “ευ-“ added to the noun “τύχη”, which means...
Becky: … "luck”!
Stefania: ...gives us the nouns “ευτυχία”, meaning “happiness” and “ευτύχημα”, which is in our dialogue, and it literally means “good fortune”.
Becky: So “eftihía” is not exactly “happi-ness”, but good-luck.
Stefania: Exactly! Ευ-τυχία.
Becky: I see. Are there many such prefixes?
Stefania: There are. And each gives a specific meaning to the word, just like “ευ-“ does. One prefix can mean “again”, another can mean “split”, “both sides”, “against”. They can have all kinds of meanings.
Becky: Can I find these in the lesson notes?
Stefania: Of course! With their meanings and everything! We have also included some more detailed examples.
Becky: OK. But can we have at least one more?
Stefania: Sure. The prefix “ξανα-,” means “again”. So, if you put it before almost any verb, you get a repeated action of that verb.
Becky: For example?
Stefania: “γράφω” means “to write”. “ξαναφράφω” literally means, “I write again”, so “rewrite”.
Becky: Can you…
Stefania: …say it again? Sure! “γράφω” and “ξαναφράφω”.
Becky: It isn’t hard.
Stefania: No. It just takes some time to get used to them.


Becky: That’s all for this lesson, everyone! Thanks for listening, and we’ll see you next time.
Stefania: Γεια χαρά!


Please to leave a comment.
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GreekPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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Hello Listeners! Let's practice here the prefixes (προθέματα) used in the composition of words.

GreekPod101.com Verified
Saturday at 10:16 AM
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Hi Marianne,

Yes, they are both the same. Αν θέλεις να is more standard but in everyday life, you can use whichever you prefer :)



Team GreekPod101.com

Marianne DK
Friday at 10:25 PM
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Γεια σου Στεφανία.

If you want: αν θες να

is the same as “αν θέλεις να” ?


GreekPod101.com Verified
Monday at 09:53 AM
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Γεια σου Elias,

Δεν πειράζει! Το σημαντικό είναι που πήρες την απάντησή σου.?

Για χαρά,


Team GreekPod101.com

Monday at 01:52 AM
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Γεια σου Στεφάνια,

Νομίζω η σημασία είναι στο σχόλιο. Νομίζω εγώ πρέπει να κοιτάζω τα σχόλια πρώτα. ???


Monday at 01:27 AM
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Γεια σου Στεφάνια,

Είναι ίδια το "στοιχείο" κι ο "γεγονός";


GreekPod101.com Verified
Monday at 01:26 PM
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Γεια σου Ντέιλ,

σε ποια ερώτηση αναφέρεσαι; Σε αυτή για τα στοιχεία και τα γεγονότα ή για το ανισόρροπος;

Στοιχεία can mean a lot of things, depending on the context:


Usually it means "element", "clue", "evidence", "data".

Γεγονότα = facts, occurrences (happenings), past events

Ανισόρροπος = unbalanced, and it can either literally or metaphorically (for a crazy person)

I hope that helps clear up any questions. If not, let me know!


Team GreekPod101.com

Sunday at 10:25 PM
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Δεν είχα διαβάσει τα "Lesson Notes" πριν σου έγραψα τη ρώτησή μου!


Sunday at 10:06 PM
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Καλή μερα, Στεφανία,

Μια άλλη ρώτηση;

Έχω μια ρώτηση σχετικά με το επίθετο "ανισόρροπος " στην αυτήν την έκφραση, "Όμως τώρα είναι κάπως ανισόρροπο." Η λεξιλόγιό μου λέει ότι έχει επήσης μια διαφορετική "διάσταση" από " ". Δηλαδή, σημαίνει κάτι ως "τρελλός." Ἠθελε να πει ο Κοστας ότι το γραψιμο της ήταν λίγο "nutty, crazy" ;

Thanks again!


Friday at 10:26 PM
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Γεια σας, Στεφανία,

Τι κάνετε;

Υπάρχει μια σπουδαία διαφορά μεταξύ "τα στοιχεία" και "τα γεγονότα!;" Υποθέτω ότι μήπως θα ήταν σαν "the facts " και "what happened" στα Αγγλικά;