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Learn the Greek Alphabet A-Z!

Learning to speak a new language is exciting; learning to write a new language is even more exciting! It will open new worlds for you. So, dig into these tips and advice for learning how to master the Greek alphabet easily - at GreekPod101 we make it easy, fun and relevant for you!

Starting anything from scratch can be challenging, especially if you learn how to write in a language completely different from your own. It is really like navigating through a territory that is completely unknown to you.

However, this need not be a big hurdle or a problem! At GreekPod101, we introduce you to Greek writing in simple, easy-to-follow steps, and you can ask for advice or help anywhere along the way. It is important to master the Greek alphabet (alpha, beta, etc.) completely from the start.

Download Your FREE Guide to the Greek Alphabet!

If you want to master the Greek language and become fluent, you must learn the Greek alphabet letters first.
And you need physical worksheets to practice on.

This Greek Alphabet Guide is a MUST-HAVE for all Greek learning beginners!

Free Greek eBook

Download your Free Greek alphabet practice sheets PDF today and master the Greek text in no time!
This is a must-have guide for absolute beginners.

Related Lessons

Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Greek Writing


For those embarking on Greek lessons it is likely not going to be the actual Greek vocabulary that will present the largest hurdle, but the alphabet. The Greek text varies completely, both in how it appears visually and how it works within the context of the language, from that used in the English language. Though early in your Greek lessons it is likely that you will only be exposed to the alphabet as a concept rather than a critical aspect of your learning, those that are serious about learning how to speak Greek and discovering a deeper appreciation for Greek culture will eventually need to learn the alphabet.

The Greek alphabetic scripts has been in consistent use since the 8th century BC. The classical Greek alphabet and modern Greek forms are extremely similar, both featuring 24 letters. Alpha and omega, the first and last letters of the alphabet have significance to many, particularly the Judeo-Christian religions. These letters are often used to refer to the Supreme Being, who was said to have described himself as “the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end”. While the sequence of letters has remained the same since the official “Classical” period until contemporary usage, pronunciation of the alphabet has changed dramatically due to gradual modifications in the way in which the language was spoken.

Even outside of the Greek culture the Greek alphabet has many applications. Often the letters are used as technical symbols or for abbreviations within the medical field. Those that are learning Greek will most likely build their Greek vocabulary not through initial use of the alphabet, but through transliterated words, meaning the words are taken out of the original script and spelled phonetically using the alphabet of the English language. This is a practical application for those only interested in learning how to speak Greek, but not necessarily needing to understand how to read the words in context. In fact, if you are using a Greek dictionary it is likely that the words will be transliterated, not written in the alphabet, though the letters will probably be outlined in an appendix of the dictionary. Understanding the Greek alphabet text can not only help you to build your vocabulary further, but will let you read these words contextually, and develop an appreciation for such things as religious texts, original literature, and even inscriptions on historical locations as you are able to read and interpret the language as it was intended.

2. Greek Alphabet Chart



1) The Focus of This Lesson Is the Greek Writing System

Greek has its own writing system using the Greek alphabet. The Greeks adapted their current writing system from the Phoenician alphabet.

Linguists believe that ancient Greek originated from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, which consisted of twenty-two acrophonic glyphs, dating all the way back to the Late Bronze Age (from about the fifteenth century B.C.). It is the first and oldest alphabet to use vowels. The Greek alphabet as it is known today emerged after the Greek Dark Ages (circa 1200 B.C.). Before that, the Greeks used a script called Linear B for several centuries, but it eventually died out with the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. The most notable change with the adaptation of the Phoenician alphabet was the introduction of vowel letters, without which Greek would be illegible.

The ionic alphabet of Greek became the standard for Athens in 403 B.C., and as a result of Athens’ vast influence, it slowly became the standard for all other Greek-speaking areas as well.

The direction in which Greek is written has evolved from its original right-to-left orientation to a back-and-forth, or boustrophedon, system in which each line is written in the opposite direction of the previous line. Sometime around 500 B.C., Greek adopted its current orientation of left-to-right writing.

The Greek alphabetic scripts are used today mainly in Greece and Cyprus, but it is also widely used within mathematics, astronomy, and science.

2) Greek Alphabetic Systems

The Greek alphabet symbols consists of twenty-four characters, of which seven are vowels and seventeen are consonants. See the uppercase letters and lowercase letters below.

  • Α (α): Álfa
  • Β (β): Víta
  • Γ (γ): Gáma
  • Δ (δ): Délta
  • Ε (ε): Épsilon
  • Ζ (ζ): Zíta
  • Η (η): Íta
  • Θ (θ): Thíta
  • Ι (ι): Yóta
  • Κ (κ): Kápa
  • Λ (λ): Lámda
  • Μ (μ): Mi
  • Ν (ν): Ni
  • Ξ (ξ): Xi
  • Ο (ο): Ómikron
  • Π (π): Pi
  • Ρ (ρ): Ro
  • Σ (σ ς): Sígma
  • Τ (τ): Taf
  • Υ (υ): Ípsilon
  • Φ (φ): Fi
  • Χ (χ): Hi
  • Ψ (ψ): Psi
  • Ω (ω): Oméga

Words are formed by combining a consonant letter and a vowel. The Greek language also forms words by using two-letter consonants, which together form one sound. Linguists assume that the two-letter consonants were introduced to the language to cover the lack of specific Greek alphabet sounds such as [b], [d], and [g].

Just by knowing the Greek alphabetic scripts (e.g. alpha, beta, etc.), you can survive in Greece because many words in English originate from Greek: this will allow you to survive with limited knowledge of the language. Furthermore, you will have an easier time understanding mathematics and science as they use the letter of the Greek alphabet.

3) Note

When writing in modern Greek alphabet, unlike English and other European languages that use a question mark (”?”), the Greek question mark is a semicolon (”;”) in English.

We will be using the Greek question mark in our Greek examples. Now there will be no more confusion.

3. Why is Learning the Alphabet Important?



A language’s alphabet is its building blocks. Trying to learn how to write in modern Greek without first learning its alphabet is a bit like trying to build a brick house without touching the individual bricks! It is impossible to do a good job that way. So don’t believe language schools and methods that try to teach you otherwise. You will regret it later.

Also, once you start recognizing symbols and words, you will be encouraged by your own progress and motivated to learn even faster. Even just learning the basics of the alphabet will allow you to start recognizing simple Greek words, and it will feel great!

Furthermore, knowing the alphabet even helps with pronunciation, as learning the individual letters of any language will start uncovering nuances and intricacies that are not always apparent when you’re simply listening to the words.

Completely mastering the Greek alphabet, no matter how long it takes, will give you an excellent head start in learning how to write and read the language. It will offer you a solid foundation on which to build the other language skills, so set a goal to learn the alphabet so well that you’re able to recite it in your sleep!

Read on for helpful tips and secrets to learning the Greek alphabet quickly and effectively.

4. How to Download Your Free Guide to Beginner Greek


Download Your FREE Guide to the Greek Alphabet!

If you want to master the Greek language and become fluent, you must learn the Greek alphabet letters first.
And you need physical worksheets to practice on.

This Greek Alphabet PDF is a MUST-HAVE for all Greek learning beginners!

Free Greek eBook

Download your Free Greek practice sheets PDF today and learn the Greek text in no time!
This is a must-have guide for absolute beginners.

If you are still here, I assume you are not afraid of the challenge of learning all the Greek alphabet. Do you want to know how to learn the Greek characters? Here is a guide to learning Greek letters in few steps:

  1. Get your Greek writing practice sheets, showing all the characters at once.If you’re a member of GreekPod101, you can download it for free. Click the button below!
  2. Memorize these letters, at least how they sound.
  3. Get acquainted with the stroke order
  4. Write them outAgain and again. To learn how to properly write the Greek alphabet, you have to practice.

We’re giving this eBook to ALL GreekPod101 members. You learn to read and write the letters in 1 hour or less. With this eBook, you get…

  • Greek Alphabet Chart: Capital Letters & Lowercase Forms
  • Roman Equivalent (Consonant and Vowel Sounds)
  • Greek Letter Shape Writing Tutorials
  • Printable Worksheets For You To Practice Writing On
  • Bonus Quizzes for Review
  • By The End, You Will Be Able to Read & Write in Greek

Why are we giving it away? Learning to read and write is a must for all beginners. Although you get video lessons on how to write in Greek at GreekPod101, you’ll still need physical worksheets to practice on. That’s why you’re getting this printable tutorial PDFs as a gift.

5. Secrets to Learning the Greek Alphabet Fast



With a language, like with anything you have to learn from scratch, having a few mnemonic devices handy are key to learning it fast. A mnemonic device is basically any method or technique that helps you to retain or commit something to memory more easily.

Here are a few mnemonic devices to memorize the Greek alphabet so you can speed up learning how to write in Greek.

1) Find and Learn an Alphabet Song or Poem in Greek

Can you still remember your childhood alphabet song in your own language? The best way to commit it to memory so you can recite it is still your mom or first teacher’s way - with music, a song and/or a poem! Find a recording and learn to sing the song, or recite the poem along as best as you can. Ask your GreekPod101 teacher to help you understand exactly what you are singing or saying, and soon you’ll have reciting the alphabet under your belt! Repeat it out loud as often as possible.

However, you still need to learn how to write it.

2) Study a Few Letters At a Time

Remember when you were young and learning to write for the first time? You didn’t start with words or sentences; you started with letters, one at a time!

Decide on tackling only a few letters each week, and then don’t move on from these till you are completely familiar with them. Don’t take on too many at once, or you may become discouraged. Also, remember to ask your teacher at GreekPod101 if you have questions!

Learn to incidentally spot the letters in books, road signs (If you’re living in the country), magazines, on TV, anywhere you encounter written Greek. Remember to write them out!

3) Write Out the Letters of the Alphabet By Hand

Make it a goal to write out your week’s letters at least once a day, and commit to this goal. You can also do it every time you have a free moment. Get yourself a special notebook for this purpose that you can carry with you anywhere you go. Sitting on the train or bus? Waiting for someone somewhere? Whip out your notebook and write the letters of the Greek language, or the letters you are learning. Aim for about 20 repetitions, while silently saying the letter in your head as you write it out. This way, you will soon be able to form and write words all by yourself! Exciting, isn’t it?

Writing something down with a pen also seems to engrave it in the brain in a way that nothing else does. As an added benefit, it gives you the satisfaction of seeing a new language in your own writing!

Once you’ve mastered the whole alphabet, commit to writing it out in its entirety at least once a day, for at least one month. More repetitions are obviously better.

4) Involve Your Whole Body

Research has shown that the more senses and actions we use to learn something, the quicker the new information sticks in the memory and becomes habitual. To apply this principle while learning the Greek alphabet, write out huge letters by tracing them in the soil, or with chalk on the floor. Now, while saying the letter out loud, walk on the lines you have just traced. In this way, you ‘write’ the letter by moving your whole body!

Having fun just makes it even easier to learn something, so why not ‘write’ the letters out with dance steps while moving to your favorite Greek music!

This is a simple trick that seems silly, but you’ll be surprised how quickly you will commit intricate letters to memory this way. It really works!

5) Use Associations To Memorize Letters

This technique would involve saying the Greek letter out loud, and then thinking of a word in your own language that sounds the same as the letter. That would then create a phonic association that should make it easier for you to remember the letter. Better even if the association is something you can draw or picture.

If the script of the new alphabet is very different from your own, look at it closely, and see if you can find an image that the letter reminds you of.

6) Now Have Fun Trying To Write Words!

Try to write words from your own language in Greek, and ask your friendly GreekPod101 teachers for feedback! Or post them on the forum and see if anyone can read them. You will be so pleased with yourself when you start writing words that are readable and recognizable by native speakers.

6. Related Lessons


How to Say Hello in Greek
Do you know how to say hello in Greek? It’s the most basic phrase that you’ll need to say and hear in everyday life. If you don’t know yet, learn 15 ways to say hello and greet others in Greek. Why 15? The more variations you know, the more you can speak and the more fluent you become!
How to Introduce Yourself in Greek
Can you introduce yourself in Greek? Don’t worry! Check out the 10 Greek Lines You Need To Introduce Yourself with this free Review Sheet. From “My name is…“ and “I live in…” down to “My hobbies are…” Just review the 10 lines. It will only take you 2 minutes. Then, introduce yourself in the comment section below!
Top Greek Phrases
How good is your Greek? Care to put it to the test? Here’s the deal! We’ve come up with this must-know Greek Phrases List. Learn the top 25 Greek phrases, hear the native pronunciation and put your Greek to the test. Did you know them all? If not, review the list and master these easy phrases!
How to Say Thank You in Greek
Has anyone thanked you today? We will. Thank you for reading this article and learning with us! In fact, today, you’ll learn the many different ways to say “Thank You” in Greek. It’s one of the most important Greek phrases. Check it out and watch the video too to practice your pronunciation.

Please to leave a comment.
😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

GreekPod101.com Verified
Thursday at 12:42 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi Daniel,

Always happy to help! I'm glad you are enjoying learning my language the most!

And no worries, I understand about the money. I hope you will be able to subscribe in the future.

All the best,


Team GreekPod101.com

Daniel Shalev
Wednesday at 02:23 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Yes , my mistake, I have free acc - i do not have any money right now to pay even for basic acc - but your answer helped me and now I pretty much understand everything I needed to know ! Thank you Stefania ! It is always a pleasure to learn your lovely language - as it is my favorite language of all the other languages I learn !

GreekPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 02:12 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi Daniel,

2. Yes, sometimes there is assimilation where words meet and sometimes not. If you have to make super short pauses between words like singing in staccato style, then you should just read the word as it is, no assimilation. When you pronounce the words together, gliding from one to the other, then assimilation is sometimes inevitable. I wouldn't say it's a (soft) rule, but more of an occurrence, a phonological phenomenon.

3. If you are paying for a basic account, you should have complete lesson access. See here:


If you are paying for basic but don't have access, try to log out, clear the cache and cookies, and log in again.

Perhaps you have a free account then? Unfortunately, there are no similar videos for free accounts and these videos are not available on YouTube. If you really want to deepen your knowledge of Greek, my recommendation would be to upgrade to a Basic account at least.

I hope this helps!

Kind regards,


Team GreekPod101.com

Daniel Shalev
Tuesday at 04:05 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.


1: This is the video - the first legato example is from point 0:24 to 0:30 , then the staccato example is from point 0:30 to 0:34 is MORE STACCATO (NOT staccato 100%) .

2: so you are saying that SOMETIMES THERE IS an assimilation with the sounds toegether and SOMETIMES NOT ? if yes so I can pretty much understand from it that there the rule isnt very strong (let's use the term "strong") , and I can generally understand and accept it without any problem .

3- the videos you sent me are for premium accounts only , and I have the basic account , so I cannot get into them - if there are similar videos to them for basic account I will be glad to watch them (you can even name to me videos on youtube without relation to greekpod101.com).

GreekPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 09:09 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi Daniel,

1. Can you give me a specific timestamp in the video so I can use that as a reference? The singing might not be consistent across the song.

2. When a word ends in S but the next one starts with N, then S+N might sound like Z+N. It's how Greeks naturally blend the consonant sounds when they are pronounced closed together (assimmilation).

3. Here are the lessons:


https://www.greekpod101.com/lesson/ultimate-greek-pronunciation-guide-9-assimilation-part-2/?lp=47 (this is the one that describes what happens on point 2. above)



Team GreekPod101.com

Daniel Shalev
Saturday at 04:04 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi stefania!

Ty very much for your answer !

I want to know few things:

1- I understand about staccato everything .

Regarding legato - we cant say the "Άμα θες να ζεις με εμένα" part is totally legato , I've just watched a video regarding staccato and legato on youtube- and according to what the vocalist taught there is that legato is faster than what Tus and Matthaios sung in the last part I mentioned - do you agree with me it isn't totally legato ?

2- I don't exactly understand what is your last point regarding the actual sound of Σ in Θες - is the sound is really Z or it is S ?

3- I would love to have links of the lessons you mentioned in the end .

GreekPod101.com Verified
Monday at 10:55 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi Daniel,

Great questions.

Normally, if someone is reading a written text, if there is a comma between an N-ending word and a Π,Τ,Κ-starting word, then the pronunciation of either shouldn't get affected. If there is no comma though, assimilation will probably happen because the words will be pronounced more closely together and result in sounds like B, D, G accordingly.

Your example, however, is a song, so the singer doesn't necessarily have to make a pause, just because the lyrics have a comma, and he has to follow the music tempo, rhythm, and notation of the music sheet. I heard this song, and the άμα θες part gets repeated twice in a staccato mode and then άμα θες να ζεις με εμένα is pronounced in a legato mode. Since legato means that the speech is slurry, sliding from one syllable or note to the other, assimilation happens, so it sounds like άμα θεΖ να ζεις με εμένα. It's a phonological phenomenon that occurs unconsciously among native speakers.

There are some assimilation lessons in our Greek pronunciation video series, if you care to have a look.

All the best,


Team GreekPod101.com

Daniel Shalev
Sunday at 03:11 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

I want to ask 2 questions about 2 rules in modern greek :

1- what sound Π,Τ,Κ have when it is after a word ends with Ν AND THERE IS A COMMA,SEMI COLON, OR A DOT between the word ends with Ν and between the word starts with Κ,Π,Τ ?

Same question with Σ with the sound of Ζ after the letters , β,γ,δ,λ,μ,ν,ρ AND THERE IS A COMMA/SIMI COLON/DOT between the word ends with Σ and the other words starts with Ζ ;

For instance there is the song "πίστευε και μη έρευνα by "Tus" & Matthaios Giannoulis - and there is a line there with 3 examples of singing it with a comma- "άμα θες , αμα θες , αμα *ΘΕΣ (,) ΝΑ* *ΖΕΙΣ (,) ΜΕ* ΕΜΕΝΑ , πίστευε και μη έρευνα . The singers in the song sing the two examples a bit slowly not fast speed at all , so this is why I have a doubt .

GreekPod101.com Verified
Sunday at 09:53 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Γεια σου Stephanie,

Thank you so much for your kind comment. ❤️️

Let us know if you have any questions!

Γεια χαρά,


Team GreekPod101.com

Saturday at 06:39 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.



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