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Lesson Transcript

Eric: Hi everyone, and welcome back to GreekPod101.com. This is Upper Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 8 - Briefing Your Passengers in Greek. Eric here.
Chrissi: Γεια σας. I'm Chrissi.
Eric: In this lesson, we will have a closer look at verb endings in the present and aorist tense, as well as the passive participle endings.
Eric: The following monologue takes place in the main lounge of a cruise ship.
Chrissi: Katerina will be briefing Greek-speaking passengers about life on board.
Eric: The speech is directed at passengers, so she will be using formal Greek. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

Κατερίνα: Καλησπέρα σας κυρίες και κύριοι και καλώς ήρθατε στο MV Νηρέας.
Κατερίνα: Είμαι η Κατερίνα και εκ μέρους του πλοιάρχου, των αξιωματικών και του πληρώματος σας εύχομαι να έχετε μια ευχάριστη κρουαζιέρα.
Κατερίνα: Κατ' αρχάς θα ήθελα να σας ευχαριστήσω όλους για την παρουσία σας.
Κατερίνα: Ως πλοιοσυνοδός σας ο σκοπός της συνάντησης αυτής είναι να σας ενημερώσω για τη ζωή στο πλοίο.
Κατερίνα: Μετά το τέλος της ομιλίας μου η συνάδερφός μου από το τμήμα εκδρομών, Εύα Βασιλείου, θα σας ενημερώσει για τις εκδρομές που προσφέρουμε σε κάθε έναν από τους προορισμούς, για αυτό θα σας παρακαλούσα να παραμείνετε στις θέσεις σας.
Κατερίνα: Ξεκινάω λοιπόν με το θέμα των λογαριασμών. Οι συναλλαγές στο πλοίο μας δεν πραγματοποιούνται με μετρητά, αλλά με το ηλεκτρονικό κλειδί της καμπίνας σας.
Κατερίνα: Οι υπηρεσίες που φέρουν κάποιο κόστος θα χρεώνονται στον λογαριασμό κάθε δωματίου με την επίδειξη της αντίστοιχης κάρτας-κλειδιού. Για κάθε χρέωση θα κόβεται και απόδειξη.
Κατερίνα: Είναι λοιπόν απαραίτητο να δηλώσετε στη ρεσεψιόν, η οποία βρίσκεται στο κατάστρωμα νούμερο 5, είτε την πιστωτική σας κάρτα, είτε να καταθέσετε κάποια προκαταβολή.
Κατερίνα: Στην περίπτωση της προκαταβολής, όποια διαφορά προκύψει στο τέλος της κρουαζιέρας επιστρέφεται ή πληρώνεται τοις μετρητοίς.
Eric: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Katerina: Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen and welcome on board MV Nereus.
Katerina: I'm Katerina and on behalf of the captain, officers and crew I wish you a pleasant cruise.
Katerina: First of all, I'd like to thank you all for being here.
Katerina: I am your hostess, and the purpose of this meeting is to inform you about life on board.
Katerina: After the end of my speech, my colleague Eva Vasiliou from the shore excursion department will inform you about the excursions that we offer on each of our destinations, therefore I kindly ask you to remain seated.
Katerina: So I'll start with the accounts. The transactions on our ship are not done with cash, but with the electronic key of your cabin.
Katerina: Services that bear a cost will be charged on the account of each room by showing the corresponding key-card. For every charge, a receipt will be issued.
Katerina: So it is necessary for you to either register a credit card or make a money deposit at the reception, located on deck number 5.
Katerina: In the case of the money deposit, any resulting difference at the end of the cruise will be refunded or paid in cash.
Eric: Chrissi, do many Greek people speak English?
Chrissi: I would say a good portion do, especially among the younger generation.
Eric: And what about the tourist services; is there English support on those?
Chrissi: Information and services for tourists are offered in many languages, including English. Tourism-related businesses often provide their services in multiple languages so they can maximize business.
Eric: What about menus, brochures, guided tours and information?
Chrissi: Those are often available in languages such as English, Spanish, German, French, Italian, Russian, Japanese and even Chinese. This is one of the things that makes Greece one of the most tourist-friendly countries to visit.
Eric: Okay, now onto the vocab.
Eric: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is...
Chrissi: παραμένω [natural native speed]
Eric: to remain, to stay
Chrissi: παραμένω [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: παραμένω [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: συναλλαγή [natural native speed]
Eric: transaction, dealing
Chrissi: συναλλαγή [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: συναλλαγή [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: πραγματοποιούμαι [natural native speed]
Eric: to come true, to be realized, to be accomplished, to be held
Chrissi: πραγματοποιούμαι [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: πραγματοποιούμαι [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: φέρω [natural native speed]
Eric: to bear
Chrissi: φέρω [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: φέρω [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: αντίστοιχος [natural native speed]
Eric: corresponding, respective, equivalent
Chrissi: αντίστοιχος [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: αντίστοιχος [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: απόδειξη [natural native speed]
Eric: proof, receipt, voucher
Chrissi: απόδειξη [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: απόδειξη [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: κατάστρωμα [natural native speed]
Eric: deck (floor of ship), steerage (nautical)
Chrissi: κατάστρωμα [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: κατάστρωμα [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: προκαταβολή [natural native speed]
Eric: deposit, down payment, advance payment
Chrissi: προκαταβολή [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: προκαταβολή [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: προκύπτει (γ' πρόσωπο) [natural native speed]
Eric: to arise, to emerge, to result
Chrissi: προκύπτει (γ' πρόσωπο) [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: προκύπτει (γ' πρόσωπο) [natural native speed]
Eric: And last...
Chrissi: μετρητά [natural native speed]
Eric: cash
Chrissi: μετρητά [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: μετρητά [natural native speed]
Eric: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first phrase is...
Chrissi: ...κόβω απόδειξη.
Eric: Which means “to issue a receipt.”
Chrissi This phrase is made up of two words: the verb κόβω, which means “to cut,” and the noun απόδειξη, which means “receipt.”
Eric: So, literally it means “to cut a receipt,” but you can translate it as “to issue a receipt.” The reason the verb “to cut” is used in Greek is that printed receipts from cashier machines or manual receipts from receipt books are pulled and detached in a way that is like being cut out. Can you give us an example using this phrase?
Chrissi: Yes. For example, you can say: Όσοι καταστηματάρχες δεν κόβουν αποδείξεις φοροδιαφεύγουν.
Eric: Meaning “The shop owners that don't issue receipts evade taxes.” Okay, what's the next phrase?
Chrissi: Τοις μετρητοίς.
Eric: Meaning “in cash”. You can use this phrase in any situation, formal or informal.
Chrissi: Τοις μετρητοίς can also be used metaphorically in expressions such as τα παίρνω όλα τοις μετρητοίς,
Eric: In which case it means “to take everything seriously.”
Chrissi: Τοις μετρητοίς uses a grammatical case that no longer exists in modern Greek - the dative case, or δοτική in Greek. The ending -οι (όμικρον γιώτα) in both the article τοις and the word μετρητοίς is a characteristic of this case.
Eric: Are there many expressions in dative that are still widely used in daily life?
Chrissi: Yes. For example: τοις εκατό meaning “percent”, δόξα τω Θεώ, meaning “thank God” or εν πλω, “at sea”.
Eric: Can you give us an example using this?
Chrissi: Sure. For example: Μην τα παίρνεις όλα τις μετρητοίς, πλάκα έκανα.
Eric: Which means “Don't take everything seriously, I was joking.” Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Eric: In this lesson we will have a closer look at verb endings in the present and aorist tense, as well as passive participle endings. We will be categorizing some verbs and participles according to their endings.
Chrissi: This will help you organize some of the grammar points we went over in previous lessons in your mind, and will also help improve your verb spelling skills.
Eric: Okay, first let's take a look at verbs of the conjugation A in the present tense.
Chrissi: In that group we have more than 10 endings.
Eric: Let's see some. The first ending is:
Chrissi: -άβω. For example ανάβω, meaning “to light up” and ράβω meaning “to sew.”
Eric: Next we have…
Chrissi: ...-εύω, as in κλαδεύω.
Eric: “To prune.”
Chrissi: And ψαρεύω
Eric: “To fish”.
Chrissi: Also in this group we have verbs ending in -αίνω and -έρνω. For example ζεσταίνω, meaning “to heat” and γέρνω, meaning “to bend.”
Eric: Listeners, you can find a complete list of endings for Conjugation A verbs along with exceptions in the lesson notes. Now, let’s move on to the aorist tense of conjugation A verbs.
Chrissi: Here the verbs can be divided into 2 groups.
Eric: The first group includes verbs that don't change their present tense stem vowel in the aorist tense, and the second group includes verbs that do change it. Chrissi, what verbs belong to the first group, the one where verbs don’t change their stem vowel?
Chrissi: They are verbs with the following letters as their stem vowels: -η-, -ι-, -υ-, -ει-, -οι-, -ω- and -o-.
Eric: Can you give us some examples?
Chrissi: For example, the verb αφήνω, meaning “to let" or "to leave”, in the aorist tense becomes άφησα. So the -η- remains. The verb γίνομαι meaning “to become”, in the aorist keeps the -ι- and becomes έγινα. Απλώνω, “to spread”, becomes άπλωσα.
Eric: Great! And what verbs change their present tense stem vowel in the aorist tense?
Chrissi: The verbs that have -ε-, -αι- and -α- as their stem vowel.
Eric: Let's have some examples of these verbs.
Chrissi: For example, let’s take the verb μένω, meaning “to stay" or "to live”. In the aorist tense the stem vowel -ε- changes to -ει-, so μένω becomes έμεινα.
Eric: And one more example?
Chrissi: The verb βαραίνω, which means “to weigh on,” has a stem vowel -αι-. In the aorist tense, this stem vowel changes to -υ-. So βαραίνω becomes βάρυνα.
Eric: Our last example is the verb “to sin”, which in Greek is…
Chrissi: ...Αμαρτάνω. In the aorist tenses, it changes the stem vowel -α- to -η-, so it becomes αμάρτησα.
Eric: Listeners, there is a table in our lesson notes that explains some rules for this.
Chrissi: For example, the stem vowel -ε- changes to -ει- or -υ- in the aorist tense, the -αι- changes to -υ- or -η- and the -α- changes to -η-.
Eric: Chrissi, what about the conjugation Β verbs and their aorist tense?
Chrissi: These always form the active voice aorist tense with an -ησα ending. For example, αγαπώ, “to love,” becomes αγάπησα, and χτυπώ, meaning “to hit,” becomes χτύπησα.
Eric: Listeners, please don't forget to check out the lesson notes for more examples and for the passive participle endings.


Eric: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Chrissi: Γεια χαρά!


Please to leave a comment.
😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

GreekPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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What other languages do you speak?

GreekPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 08:02 AM
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Hey Elias,

Oh, I see!

In antiquity the word βάρβαρος didn't have the negative connotation it has today. It was just a word to describe non-Greeks, i.e. people that spoke a different language, because to Greeks, foreign languages at that point sounded like μπαρ-μπαρ which later became βαρ-βαρ, hence the word βάρβαρος. And to be honest, the popular (today) phrase πας μη Έλλην βάρβαρος has an unknown source. No one knows who said it first. It doesn't appear in any ancient Greek texts at all. It is believed that it was made up at some point much much later, probably around the 19th century.

Keep up the good work!



Tuesday at 07:52 PM
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Πλάκα έκανα! ?

Of course i was just kidding! ? I watched a documentary about the ancient Greece and i heard that sentence. ?

GreekPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 10:45 AM
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Hi Elias,

I'm just curious how you got the idea that whoever doesn't speak Greek is βάρβαρος! Did you hear or see the phrase "πας μη Έλλην βάρβαρος"?


Team GreekPod101.com

Sunday at 12:26 AM
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Όσοι άνθρωποι που δεν μιλούν τα Ελληνικά είναι οι βάρβαροι. ? ? ? Θέλω να μαθαίνω τα Ελληνικά επειδή δεν θέλω να είμαι ένας βάρβαρος. ???

GreekPod101.com Verified
Saturday at 10:39 AM
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You are welcome, Nicole!


Team GreekPod101.com

Friday at 11:24 AM
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okay great! i've been wondering this for a long time... thanks!!

GreekPod101.com Verified
Thursday at 12:17 PM
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Hi Nicole,

The most official form would be η συνάδερφος and η δικηγόρος. The versions η συναδέρφισσα and η δικηγορίνα are equally correct forms, however they are more colloquial and casual.

I'd say they are not used as often as they sound a bit too much and overly feministic for no reason to me. I would hear them probably by some old father saying proudly: Η κόρη μου είναι δικηγορίνα! My daughter is a (female) lawyer! It implies that one has to be so proud to have a female lawyer as a daughter as opposed to having a son who's a lawyer. Times have changed and it's equally possible for women to become lawyers. So there's no need to use that feminine form instead of the official ο/η δικηγόρος.

Actually we'll have a lesson about such profession words in a new video series we are working on. So stay tuned!



Team GreekPod101.com

Wednesday at 10:40 AM
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In the conversation, she says "η συνάδερφός... Εύα Βασιλείου" what would be the difference if i used συνάδελφισσα?

Are they equally correct?

Not related, but kind of same topic... if I were a female lawyer, I have seen it as η δικηγόρος and also as δικηγορίνα. Again, are they equally correct?