Learn New Words FAST with this Lesson’s Vocab Review List

Get this lesson’s key vocab, their translations and pronunciations. Sign up for your Free Lifetime Account Now and get 7 Days of Premium Access including this feature.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Notes

Unlock In-Depth Explanations & Exclusive Takeaways with Printable Lesson Notes

Unlock Lesson Notes and Transcripts for every single lesson. Sign Up for a Free Lifetime Account and Get 7 Days of Premium Access.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Transcript

Eric: Hi everyone, and welcome back to GreekPod101.com. This is Upper Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 7 - An Embarrassing Trip Up in Greece. Eric here.
Chrissi: Γεια σας. I'm Chrissi.
Eric: In this lesson, you will learn how to use the second passive aorist, double aorists, and double passive participles. The conversation takes place at the reception of a cruise ship.
Chrissi: It's between Katerina and Nikos.
Eric: The speakers are colleagues, but due to the status difference, Katerina will be using formal Greek, while Nikos will be using informal Greek. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

Νίκος: Είσαι έτοιμη για την ανακοίνωση; Να πατήσω το κουμπί;
Κατερίνα: Ναι.
Κατερίνα: (Ήχος ανακοίνωσης) Κυρίες και κύριοι, θα θέλαμε να πληροφορήσουμε τους επιβάτες που συμμετέχουν στην εκδρομή της Δήλου ότι η αποβίβαση έχει ξεκινήσει.
: Η έξοδος... (ήχος βήχα) ...με συγχωρείτε κυρίες και κύριοι. Επαναλαμβάνω, η έξοδος βρίσκεται στο κατάστρωμα 2. Σας ευχαριστώ.
Κατερίνα: Αχ, κύριε Νίκο τα έκανα θάλασσα! Στραβοκατάπια και πνίγηκα με το σάλιο μου.
Νίκος: Μου τα έκανες λίγο μούσκεμα, αλλά συμβαίνουν αυτά. Καλέ εσύ κοκκίνησες! Δεν πιστεύω να ντράπηκες, ε;
Κατερίνα: Ε, ναι. Πάω στοίχημα τώρα ότι μερικοί του πληρώματος θα βήχουν και θα χασκογελάνε μόλις με βλέπουν.
Νίκος: Χα χα! Θα σε πειράξουν μία, δύο, ε, μετά θα το ξεχάσουν!
Κατερίνα: Ελπίζω να μη μου έχετε θυμώσει.
Νίκος: Ναι, έχω θυμώσει για να είμαι ειλικρινής. Έχω θυμώσει που μου μιλάς συνέχεια στον πληθυντικό και με κάνεις να αισθάνομαι γέρος! Λοιπόν, κομμένα τα «σεις» και τα «σας» από εδώ και στο εξής!
Κατερίνα: Ό,τι... πεις!
Eric: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Nikos: Are you ready for the announcement? Can I press the button?
Katerina: Yes.
Katerina: (Announcement) Ladies and gentlemen, we would like to inform all those passengers participating in the excursion to Delos that the disembarkation has commenced.
: The exit... (coughing) ... pardon me ladies and gentlemen. I repeat, the exit is located on deck 2. Thank you.
Katerina: Oh, Mr. Nikos I blew it! I didn't swallow right and I choked on my own saliva.
Nikos: You messed it up a little, but these things happen. But you blushed! You're not embarrassed, are you?
Katerina: Uh, yeah. I bet now that some of the crew will be coughing and giggling when they see me.
Nikos: (Laughs) They'll tease you a couple of times and then they will forget about it!
Katerina: I hope you are not mad at me.
Nikos: Yes, I am mad to be honest. I'm mad that you keep talking to me in polite plural form and you make me feel old. From now on, no more formalities!
Katerina: Whatever you say!
Eric: Delos was a major sacred site for the ancient Greeks – only Delphi was more important. Because of this, it attracted pilgrims from all over Greece, right?
Chrissi: That’s right. At one point, Delos was considered so sacred that people weren’t allowed to give birth or die there. If it seemed likely that either of these things would happen, the person was rushed off to the nearby islet of Rinia (Ρήνεια).
Eric: The reason behind the island’s sacred status can be traced back to Greek mythology.
Chrissi: It was believed that Apollo, the God of music and light, and Artemis, his twin sister and goddess of the hunt, were born on this small island of the Cyclades, just two miles from the island of Mykonos.
Eric: What is Delos like today?
Chrissi: Nowadays, many tourists go there to see the fascinating archaeological sites.
Eric: How do you get there?
Chrissi: You can get there by boat from the town of Mykonos. If you go during the hot summer months, I suggest you use sunblock, wear a hat and bring lots of water with you.
Eric: Thanks for the tips! Okay, now onto the vocab.
Eric: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is...
Chrissi: ανακοίνωση [natural native speed]
Eric: announcement
Chrissi: ανακοίνωση [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: ανακοίνωση [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: αποβίβαση [natural native speed]
Eric: disembarkation
Chrissi: αποβίβαση [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: αποβίβαση [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: στραβοκαταπίνω [natural native speed]
Eric: to not swallow right
Chrissi: στραβοκαταπίνω [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: στραβοκαταπίνω [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: πνίγομαι [natural native speed]
Eric: to drown, to choke on, to gag on, to suffocate
Chrissi: πνίγομαι [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: πνίγομαι [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: σάλιο [natural native speed]
Eric: saliva
Chrissi: σάλιο [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: σάλιο [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: μούσκεμα [natural native speed]
Eric: soaking wet
Chrissi: μούσκεμα [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: μούσκεμα [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: ντρέπομαι [natural native speed]
Eric: to be shy, to be ashamed, to be embarrassed
Chrissi: ντρέπομαι [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: ντρέπομαι [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: στοίχημα [natural native speed]
Eric: bet
Chrissi: στοίχημα [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: στοίχημα [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: πειράζω [natural native speed]
Eric: to tease, to bother, to annoy, to pick on somebody
Chrissi: πειράζω [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: πειράζω [natural native speed]
Eric: And last...
Chrissi: εσύ [natural native speed]
Eric: you (singular)
Chrissi: εσύ [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: εσύ [natural native speed]
Eric: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first phrase is...
Chrissi: ...τα κάνω θάλασσα or τα κάνω μούσκεμα.
Eric: Which means “to mess up,” “to fail,” or “to blow it.” Chrissi, let's break this phrase down to look at the meaning of each word.
Chrissi: Sure. This expression consists of τα, a personal pronoun in weak form, followed by the verb κάνω, meaning “to do” or “to make.” Next we have the noun θάλασσα, meaning “sea,” or the adverb μούσκεμα meaning “soaking wet.” This expression is usually used in past tense, as τα έκανα θάλασσα, τα έκανα μούσκεμα.
Eric: Meaning literally “I made it sea” or “I made it soaking wet,” but can be understood in English as “I messed up,” “I failed” or “I blew it.”
Chrissi: To better understand this phrase, just think of the mess that’s made when you spill water, and you’ll get the point!
Eric: Use this expression when you want to admit that you made a big mistake. And note that it is more appropriate to use this phrase in casual conversations with people you know well. Avoid using this in formal situations, because it won't leave a good impression.
Chrissi: Right. For formal situations, it is better to simply apologize using συγγνώμη, "I'm sorry", χίλια συγγνώμη, "I'm terribly sorry", λυπάμαι πολύ, "I'm very sorry" or συγχωρέστε με "forgive me".
Eric: Can you give us an example using this phrase?
Chrissi: Sure. For example, you can say: Έστειλε τον αδερφό της να μιλήσει εκ μέρους της και αυτός τα έκανε μούσκεμα.
Eric: Which means “She sent her brother to talk on her behalf, but he blew it.” Okay, what's the next phrase?
Chrissi: Πάω στοίχημα.
Eric: Which means “to bet.”
Chrissi: Πάω is the verb “to go” and στοίχημα means “bet”. So, it literally means “I go on a bet”.
Eric: You can use this phrase in casual and friendly conversations when you are certain about something happening.
Chrissi: Right. Avoid using this expression in formal situations.
Eric: Can you give us an example using this phrase?
Chrissi: Of course. Πάω στοίχημα ότι δεν περίμενες ότι θα σε απέρριπταν τόσο εύκολα.
Eric: Which means “I bet you weren't expecting that you would get rejected so easily.” Okay, what's last?
Chrissi: The expression το «σεις» και το «σας».
Eric: Literally this means “the 'you' and the 'you',” but you can translate it as “let's drop the formalities” or “there's no need to be formal.” You can use it when you feel familiar enough with someone to ask him or her to speak in informal language with you.
Chrissi: Σεις and σας are personal pronouns in plural and in their weak forms. They are shortened versions of the second person εσείς in nominative case and εσάς in accusative case.
Eric: As you know, in Greek the plural form is used to express formality as well. In this expression, both of these pronouns have become normalised and are therefore used with an article, so this expression literally means “the 'you' and the 'you'”. For example you can say…
Chrissi: ...Η Κατερίνα είναι πολύ ευγενική. Μας μιλάει με το «σεις» και με το «σας».
Eric: Meaning “Katerina is very polite. She talks to us in formal language.” Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Eric: In this lesson you will learn about the second passive aorist, double aorists, and double passive participles. Chrissi, let’s explain to our listeners what the second passive voice aorist tense is.
Chrissi: OK. So, some verbs do not form the passive voice aorist tense with a -θηκα or a -τηκα ending, like we've seen in the last two lessons. Instead, they only have an -ηκα ending. This aorist form, with the -ηκα ending, is called “second passive voice aorist tense”, or in Greek δεύτερος παθητικός αόριστος.
Eric: The second passive voice aorist tense is formed either with the same stem vowel that the verb has in the active voice aorist tense of the indicative mood, or with a different stem vowel.
Chrissi: Listeners, there is no rule for it, so you’ll just have to remember those verbs.
Eric: Chrissi, can you give us some examples?
Chrissi: Sure. First, an example maintaining the same stem vowel. For example, the verb κόβω.
Eric: Meaning “To cut”. So the active aorist form is...
Chrissi: ...έκοψα. This has the second passive aorist rule, so it becomes κόπηκα.
Eric: Here is another example-
Chrissi: Πνίγω meaning “to choke” or “to suffocate”. The active voice aorist is έπνιξα, while πνίγηκα is the second passive aorist.
Eric: Now let’s give an example where the stem vowel changes.
Chrissi: We’ll use the verb χαίρομαι, which means “to be glad”. It forms the second passive aorist, so it becomes χάρηκα. Another example is φαίνομαι, which means “to appear,” or “to seem”. This verb’s second passive aorist is φάνηκα.
Eric: Sometimes the stem vowel might also change in the perfect tense passive voice participle, if the verb has a form for that participle, of course.
Chrissi: This happens to στρέφω, which means “to turn” or “to rotate”. The active voice aorist is έστρεψα. Here the passive voice aorist is στράφηκα and the perfect tense passive participle is στραμμένος.
Eric: The same vowel, whether changed or not, will be used in all tenses that use the passive voice aorist stem. With this stem, you can form the “momentary tenses” of the passive voice, such as the aorist and the simple future tense.
Chrissi: We also use the passive voice aorist stem to form the passive voice infinitive which, in combination with the auxiliary verb έχω, meaning “to have”, forms the passive voice “perfective tenses.” These are the perfect, past perfect, and the future perfect tense.
Eric: Some verbs might have two aorist tense forms, in either active or passive voice, or even two perfect tense passive voice participles.
Chrissi: For example, in passive voice they might have the normal or first aorist ending in either -θήκα or -τηκα, plus the second aorist ending in -ήκα.
Eric: Chrissi, can you give us some examples of such verbs?
Chrissi: Sure. One example is the verb πηδώ, meaning “to jump”. It has double active voice aorist forms, πήδησα and πήδηξα. The other is the verb ξύνω, meaning “to scratch”. The double passive voice aorist forms are ξύστηκα and ξύθηκα.
Eric: The verbs with double aorists or double passive voice participles are considered irregular, so there are no rules or patterns that dictate their behaviour. The different forms of these verbs need to be studied and learned individually.
Chrissi: If you are wondering which form you should be using, it's better to stick with the most common one, which would be the one that Greeks use the most. For our examples, that would be πήδηξα and ξύστηκα.


Eric: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Chrissi: Γεια χαρά!