Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Eric: Hi everyone, and welcome back to GreekPod101.com. This is Upper Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 5 - Talking About Your Life in Greek. Eric here.
Chrissi: Γεια σας. I'm Chrissi.
Eric: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to form the passive voice - aorist tense - and perfect tense participle from the active voice - sigmatic aorist. The conversation takes place on board a cruise ship.
Chrissi: It's between Katerina and 48 year-old Staff Captain Alexis Leousis.
Eric: The speakers are colleagues, but because of their difference in status Katerina will be using formal Greek, while Alexis will be using informal Greek. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

Αλέξης Λεούσης: Πώς σου φαίνεται το πλοίο μας;
Κατερίνα: Το ερωτεύτηκα ήδη! Είναι πολυτελέστατο. Και οι άνθρωποι που δουλεύουν εδώ, όσους λίγους γνώρισα τουλάχιστον, είναι όλοι τους πολύ ευγενικοί.
Αλέξης Λεούσης: Άντε λοιπόν, καλή αρχή να έχεις! Αλήθεια, τι δουλειά έκανες πριν;
Κατερίνα: Ασχολιόμουν με τα ξενοδοχειακά. Δούλευα για μια μεγάλη αλυσίδα ξενοδοχείων στη Φρανκφούρτη.
Αλέξης Λεούσης: Πολύ ωραία! Και πώς και γύρισες πίσω στην Ελλάδα;
Κατερίνα: Κάποια στιγμή απλά κουράστηκα με τα ίδια και τα ίδια. Μου έλειπε η Ελλάδα πολύ... η θάλασσα, ο ήλιος, τα νησιά.
: Ένας φίλος μου εδώ στην Ελλάδα μπάρκαρε πέρυσι και άρχισε να μου βάζει ιδέες. Ε, τελικά πείστηκα και... να 'μαι!
Αλέξης Λεούσης: Μεγάλο ρίσκο πήρες. Να εγκαταλείψεις τη φτιαγμένη ζωή σου εκεί και να γυρίσεις πίσω. Τα πράγματα εδώ είναι πολύ δύσκολα. Στάθηκες όμως τυχερή!
Κατερίνα: Έχετε δίκιο. Πάρα πολύ τυχερή θα έλεγα.
Αλέξης Λεούσης: Λοιπόν, Κατερίνα, εγώ πρέπει να επιστρέψω στη γέφυρα.
: Εσένα σε θέλω καλά προετοιμασμένη την Πέμπτη το πρωί στο γυμνάσιο συναγερμού. Διάβασε καλά το εγχειρίδιο που σου έδωσα, γιατί θα σε ρωτήσω!
Κατερίνα: Μάλιστα κύριε ύπαρχε!
Eric: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Alexis Leousis: What do you think of our ship?
Katerina: I'm in love with it already! It's so luxurious! And the people that work here, the few that I’ve met at least, they are all so polite.
Alexis Leousis: Well, have a good start then! Actually, what kind of job were you doing before?
Katerina: I was in the hotel industry. I was working for a large chain of hotels in Frankfurt.
Alexis Leousis: Very nice! And how come you came back to Greece?
Katerina: At some point I just got tired of the same things over and over again. I was missing Greece a lot... the sea, the sun, the islands.
: A friend of mine here in Greece joined a ship last year and he started putting ideas in my head. Well, I got convinced and..here I am!
Alexis Leousis: You took a great risk there. Leaving behind your settled life and coming back here. Things here are very tough. But you were lucky!
Katerina: You are right. Very lucky, I'd say.
Alexis Leousis: So, Katerina, I have to get back to the bridge.
: I want you to be well prepared for the safety drill on Thursday morning. Read the manual I gave you very thoroughly, because I'll ask questions!
Katerina: Aye, aye, Sir!
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Eric: Chrissi, what is the most common way to reach the islands in Greece?
Chrissi: I’d say it's by ferry.
Eric: What if you’re visiting multiple islands during a holiday?
Chrissi: If that’s the case, I’d recommend going on a cruise instead!
Eric: That makes sense. If you want to visit many islands in a short period of time and don’t want to drag your luggage around everywhere, that seems like the best option. Is it easy to book a cruise?
Chrissi: Sure. There are many cruise lines that offer a variety of choices, ranging from one-day cruises to week-long or longer cruises.
Eric: I see. So by taking a cruise, passengers can visit many different places in Greece and in neighboring countries within a short period of time.
Chrissi: Yes, it’s a great way to explore Greece. You can enjoy the cuisine and entertainment while you’re on board, and take excursions and explore the many destinations when you’re on land, all with no stress or hassle!
Eric: That’s a good tip. Okay, now onto the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Eric: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is...
Chrissi: ίδιος [natural native speed]
Eric: same
Chrissi: ίδιος [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: ίδιος [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: μπαρκάρω [natural native speed]
Eric: to join a ship, to set sail, to embark (colloquial)
Chrissi: μπαρκάρω[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: μπαρκάρω [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: βάζω [natural native speed]
Eric: to put, to insert, to place, to wear
Chrissi: βάζω [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: βάζω [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: πείθομαι [natural native speed]
Eric: to be convinced
Chrissi: πείθομαι [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: πείθομαι [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: ρίσκο [natural native speed]
Eric: risk
Chrissi: ρίσκο [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: ρίσκο [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: εγκαταλείπω [natural native speed]
Eric: to abandon, to desert, to forsake
Chrissi: εγκαταλείπω [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: εγκαταλείπω [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: γέφυρα [natural native speed]
Eric: bridge, dental bridge, the platform from which a ship is navigated
Chrissi: γέφυρα [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: γέφυρα [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: γυμνάσιο [natural native speed]
Eric: middle school, drill
Chrissi: γυμνάσιο [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: γυμνάσιο [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: εγχειρίδιο [natural native speed]
Eric: manual, handbook
Chrissi: εγχειρίδιο [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: εγχειρίδιο [natural native speed]
Eric: And last...
Chrissi: ύπαρχος [natural native speed]
Eric: first mate, staff captain
Chrissi: ύπαρχος [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: ύπαρχος [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Eric: Let's take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first phrase is...
Chrissi: ...Τα ίδια και τα ίδια.
Eric: Which literally means “the same and the same,” but can be translated in English as “the same things over and over again.” You can use this phrase to describe a routine or situation that is always the same and never changes.
Chrissi: Right. Like we saw in our dialogue: Κάποια στιγμή απλά κουράστηκα με τα ίδια και τα ίδια.
Eric: Which means “At some point I just got tired of the same things over and over again.” You can also use it in a more literal way, for example...
Chrissi: ...Μου έλεγε τα ίδια και τα ίδια.
Eric: “He kept telling the same things.”
Chrissi: Listeners, please remember that the connotation of this expression is usually negative, because it implies boredom.
Eric: Chrissi, can you give us an example using this phrase?
Chrissi: Sure. For example, you can say: Το κόμμα αυτό κάθε τετραετία υπόσχεται τα ίδια και τα ίδια, όμως ποτέ δεν τα πραγματοποιεί.
Eric: Which means “Every year, this political party promises the same things over and over again, but it never makes them happen.” Okay, what's the next phrase?
Chrissi: Βάζω ιδέες.
Eric: Which means “to put ideas into (was on) someone's head”.
Chrissi: The verb βάζω means “to put”, and the plural noun ιδέες means “ideas”. So, altogether βάζω ιδέες means “to put ideas into somebody’s head.” Here, the part “into someone's head” is implied in Greek.
Eric: You can use this phrase in any situation.
Chrissi: Listeners, please note that you cannot use ιδέες in the singular form and say βάζω ιδέα. You can say δίνω ιδέα, though, which means “I give an idea.”
Eric: For situations in which an idea got into your head not because someone else put it there, but because you came up with it yourself, you say…
Chrissi: ...μου μπήκε η ιδέα, which roughly means “I got the idea.”
Eric: Okay, what's the last phrase?
Chrissi: Γυμνάσιο συναγερμού.
Eric: Which means “safety drill.”
Chrissi: The noun συναγερμός means “alarm” and the noun γυμνάσιο normally means “middle school,” but in military contexts it means “drill”...
Eric: ...which is a disciplined, repetitious exercise done in order to perfect a skill or procedure. An example of this would be...
Chrissi: γυμνάσιο συναγερμού
Eric: which is “safety drill.”
Chrissi: Sometimes you use the plural of the noun γυμνάσιο in expressions such as “μου κάνει γυμνάσια,” which roughly means “he or she is torturing me.”
Eric: Chrissi, can you give us an example using this phrase?
Chrissi: Sure. For example, you can say: Ολο το πλήρωμα ήταν παρόν στο γενικό γυμνάσιο συναγερμού.
Eric: Which means “The whole crew was present at the general safety drill.” Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Eric: In this lesson you will learn how to form the passive voice aorist tense and perfect tense participle from the active voice sigmatic aorist.
Chrissi: If you remember, in the sigmatic aorist tense or σιγματικός αόριστος of the active voice, the first person singular of a verb in the indicative mood will usually end in either -σα/ψα/ξα or -ησα. Out of these 4 endings, we can see that the sigmatic aorist basically ends with either -σα, -ψα or -ξα.
Eric: Now let's hear the rules that will help us form the aorist tense in the passive voice.
Chrissi: There are only 4 rules, and they are based on the -σα, -ψα or -ξα endings of the active voice.
Eric: So, what's the first rule?
Chrissi: When the active voice aorist tense ends in -σα, in order to form the passive voice aorist tense, we replace that -σα with either -στηκα or -θηκα.
Eric: Is there any rule for which ending we have to choose?
Chrissi: Actually, no. You just have to remember which ending each verb uses. To form the perfect tense passive voice participle, simply replace the ending -στηκα with -σμένος and -θηκα with -μένος.
Eric: Can you give us some examples?
Chrissi: Sure. For example, let's take the verb κουράζω from our dialogue...
Eric: ...“to tire”. So the active aorist form is….
Chrissi: ...κούρασα. Following our rule, the passive aorist will be κουράστηκα and the perfect tense participle will be κουρασμένος. So, once again, if the passive voice aorist tense has the -στηκα ending, then the perfect tense passive participle will end in -σμένος.
Eric: Here is another example.
Chrissi: Δένω means “to tie”. The active voice aorist is έδεσα. Here the passive voice aorist is δέθηκα and the perfect tense passive participle is δεμένος. As you can see, the initial ε- of the active voice, έδεσα, gets removed in the passive voice, δέθηκα.
Eric: That’s because that "-eh" is a syllabic augmentation. This syllabic augmentation is applied only to the past tenses of the active voice of the first conjugation group of verbs that begin with a consonant and that have a monosyllabic stem.
Chrissi: Like the δένω that we just saw.
Eric: Ok, now let's move on to the second rule.
Chrissi: When the active voice aorist tense ends in -ψα, in order to form the passive voice aorist tense we replace the -ψα with -φτηκα. The perfect tense passive voice participle will then end in -μμένος with a double μ.
Eric: For example…
Chrissi: Εγκαταλείπω, which means “to abandon”. The active voice aorist is εγκατέλειψα, so the passive voice aorist is εγκαταλείφτηκα, and the perfect tense passive participle is εγκαταλειμμένος.
Eric: And here is another example…
Chrissi: Ανακαλύπτω, which means “to discover”, will become ανακάλυψα in the active voice aorist, ανακαλύφτηκα in the passive voice aorist and ανακαλυμμένος in the perfect tense passive participle.
Eric: Great. Here is the third rule.
Chrissi: When the active voice aorist tense ends in -ξα, the passive voice aorist tense will be formed by replacing that -ξα with -χτηκα. The perfect tense passive voice participle will end in -γμένος.
Eric: For example, in the case of the verb “to change,” which in Greek is…
Chrissi: ...Αλλάζω...
Eric: The active voice aorist is…
Chrissi: ...άλλαξα.
Eric: So following our pattern, the passive voice aorist will be…
Chrissi: ...αλλάχτηκα...
Eric: ...and the perfect tense passive voice participle is…
Chrissi: ...αλλαγμένος. Here is another example, which we saw in the dialogue- φτιάχνω, meaning “to make”. The active voice aorist is έφτιαξα, so the passive voice aorist will be φτιάχτηκα and the perfect tense passive voice participle is φτιαγμένος.
Eric: Listeners, we have more rules and examples in the lesson notes, so be sure to check them out.

Outro

Eric: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Chrissi: Γεια χαρά!

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Have you had a chance to take a cruise trip?