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Lesson Transcript

Eric: Hi everyone, and welcome back to GreekPod101.com. This is Upper Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 25 - Don’t Forget to Eat the Donkey’s Tail in Greece! Eric Here.
Chrissi: Γεια σας. I'm Chrissi.
Eric: In this lesson, you’ll learn about direct and indirect speech. The conversation takes place at a cruise terminal.
Chrissi: It's between Katerina and her grandmother, Mrs. Meropi.
Eric: The speakers are family, so they’ll be using informal Greek. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

Κατερίνα: Α, γιαγιά! Να 'σαι! Τι έγινε; Πού είναι ο μπαμπάς;
Γιαγιά Μερόπη: Ψάχνει να παρκάρει. Γίνεται ο χαμός έξω. Μου είπε: «Πήγαινε πάρε εσύ το παιδί και πάρε με μόλις είστε έτοιμες». Είσαι έτοιμη τελικά; Να τον πάρω τηλέφωνο;
Κατερίνα: Όχι ακόμα. Μου είπε ο ατζέντης να τον περιμένω. Είναι για κάτι χαρτιά. Ξέρεις τώρα... γραφειοκρατία. Η μαμά πού είναι; Στο μαγαζί;
Γιαγιά Μερόπη: Ναι. Είχε πολλή δουλειά σήμερα και γι' αυτό δεν μπόρεσε να έρθει. Μου είπε επίσης να κάτσω σπίτι να μην κουράζομαι, όμως ήθελα να σε δω.
: Ήθελα να καμαρώσω την εγγόνα μου, το πιο ωραίο κορίτσι στο λιμάνι! Πώς ήταν τελικά στο πλοίο; Έκαψες τίποτα καρδιές;
Κατερίνα: (ντροπαλά) Γιαγιά!
Γιαγιά Μερόπη: Τι γιαγιά; Γιατί, ντρέπεσαι να μου πεις; Κοτζάμ γυναίκα είσαι πια!
Κατερίνα: Ε, ναι ντρέπομαι! Ας αλλάξουμε θέμα. Τι φαΐ έχει στο σπίτι;
Γιαγιά Μερόπη: Σου έφτιαξα γεμιστά. Το αγαπημένο σου!
Κατερίνα: Αχ, γιαγιά, τι θα έκανα χωρίς εσένα! Άντε να 'ρθει κι αυτός ο ατζέντης πια, να πάω κι εγώ σπιτάκι μου, να φάω το φαγάκι μου και να κοιμηθώ στο κρεβατάκι μου.
: Αυτό μόνο θέλω! Να κοιμηθώ!
Γιαγιά Μερόπη: Υπομονή κόρη μου. Έφαγες τον γάιδαρο. Η ουρά μόνο σου έμεινε!
Eric: Listen to the conversation with the English translation
Katerina: Oh, grandma! There you are! What happened? Where's dad?
Grandma Meropi: He is looking for a place to park. It's crazy out there. He told me—"You go get the child and call me when you are ready." Are you ready? Should I call him?
Katerina: Not yet. The agent told me to wait for him. It's about some documents. You know... bureaucracy. Where's mom? At the store?
Grandma Meropi: Yes. It was quite busy today and that's why she couldn't come. She also told me to stay at home so I won't get tired, but I wanted to see you. I wanted to admire my granddaughter, the most beautiful girl in the port! How was it on the ship in the end? Did you set any hearts on fire?
Katerina: (shyly) Grandma!
Grandma Meropi: What do you mean "grandma?" Why, is it embarrassing for you to tell me? You are a full grown woman now!
Katerina: Yes, I am embarrassed! Let's change the subject. What's for dinner at home?
Grandma Meropi: I made you stuffed bell peppers and tomatoes. Your favorite!
Katerina: Oh, grandma! What would I do without you! I hope this agent gets here soon, so that I can go to my lovely home, eat my lovely dinner, and sleep on my lovely bed.
: That's all I want! To sleep!
Grandma Meropi: Patience my girl. You finished off the whole donkey. Now, it's just the tail that's left!
Eric: Katerina’s grandmother seems lovely and embarrassing, as family members should be. They seem to have a close relationship, too.
Chrissi: Yeah, it seems so! Family bonds are very strong in Greece. Parents stay involved in their children’s lives, and this extends to grandparents too.
Eric: What is the relationship with grandparents like in Greece?
Chrissi: Grandparents are respected and their opinions are considered important.
Eric: Do they live close to their families?
Chrissi: Usually, yes. They help out with babysitting, grandmothers might help with cooking and cleaning and sometimes they give financial support too.
Eric: There have to be some families that don’t live close though, maybe due to work?
Chrissi: That’s right. Sometimes families live apart and during the summer vacation, grandchildren might be sent to stay with their grandparents.
Eric: Sounds like an adventure!
Chrissi: It is! The kids can make new friends, experience nature, and see their grandparents!
Eric: Do children leave home soon after they become adults?
Chrissi: They used to, but since the debt crisis of 2009, adult children are staying with their parents longer, or they even wait until they get married to move out.
Eric: Okay, now onto the vocab.
Eric: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Chrissi: παρκάρω [natural native speed]
Eric: to park
Chrissi: παρκάρω[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: παρκάρω [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: χαμός [natural native speed]
Eric: frenzy, madness, mayhem, racket, commotion, loss, doom
Chrissi: χαμός[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: χαμός [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: ατζέντης [natural native speed]
Eric: agent, tour operator
Chrissi: ατζέντης[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: ατζέντης [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: χαρτιά [natural native speed]
Eric: playing cards, papers, documents
Chrissi: χαρτιά[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: χαρτιά [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: γραφειοκρατία [natural native speed]
Eric: bureaucracy
Chrissi: γραφειοκρατία[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: γραφειοκρατία [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: καμαρώνω [natural native speed]
Eric: to be proud, to boast, to admire
Chrissi: καμαρώνω[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: καμαρώνω [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: εγγόνα [natural native speed]
Eric: granddaughter
Chrissi: εγγόνα[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: εγγόνα [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: καίω [natural native speed]
Eric: to burn, to set on fire, to be on fire, to be hot, to sizzle
Chrissi: καίω[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: καίω [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: γεμιστά [natural native speed]
Eric: stuffed bell peppers and tomatoes (traditional food)
Chrissi: γεμιστά[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: γεμιστά [natural native speed]
Eric: And last..
Chrissi: γάιδαρος [natural native speed]
Eric: donkey (animal), as an insult; said to unmannered, rude or insensitive people
Chrissi: γάιδαρος[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: γάιδαρος [natural native speed]
Eric: Let's have a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is..
Chrissi: γίνεται ο χαμός
Eric: meaning "it's crazy, it's mayhem." What can you tell us about this?
Chrissi: This expression consists of the verb γίνομαι, meaning "to happen" here, and the masculine noun χαμός which changes meaning depending on the situation.
Eric: It can mean “commotion,” “mayhem,” or “a crazy or intense situation.”
Chrissi: Right. So we can use this expression for a protest, or loud party, or a fight...
Eric: Any type of commotion. Does it have a positive or negative connotation?
Chrissi: It just depends on the context.
Eric: Can you give us an example using this word?
Chrissi: Sure. For example, you can say.. Με το που χτύπησε το τελευταίο σχολικό κουδούνι της χρονιάς έγινε χαμός· τα παιδιά άρχισαν να ουρλιάζουν από χαρά!
Eric: ..which means "As soon as the last school bell of the year rang it was crazy; the kids started screaming with joy!" Okay, what's the next word?
Chrissi: καίω καρδιές
Eric: meaning "to make people fall in love with one." What can you tell us about this phrase?
Chrissi: This is a metaphorical expression that consists of the verb καίω meaning "to burn" and of the noun καρδιές meaning "hearts."
Eric: So it literally means “to set hearts on fire.”
Chrissi: Yes, it does! It’s a nice saying though, even though it sounds a little violent when you take it literally!
Eric: Can it be used in any situation?
Chrissi: Yes, it can.
Eric: Can you give us an example using this word?
Chrissi: Sure. For example, you can say.. Όταν ήταν νέος ο πατέρας μας είχε κάψει τις καρδιές όλων των νεαρών κοριτσιών της γειτονιάς, όμως αυτός είχε μάτια μόνο για τη μητέρα μας.
Eric: .. which means "When our father was young he had set the hearts of all the young girls of the neighborhood on fire, although he only had eyes for our mother."
Eric: Okay, what's the next word?
Chrissi: έφαγα τον γάιδαρο
Eric: meaning "to finish off the whole donkey." Now, you definitely need to explain this one!
Chrissi: I guess so! It consists of the verb τρώω, "to eat" in the past tense, and the masculine noun γάιδαρος which means "donkey."
Eric: I’m going to guess that this is an idiom and doesn’t literally refer to eating donkeys.
Chrissi: Of course not! It refers to a tough situation nearly being over.
Eric: Ah, so the donkey is the tough situation, so to speak. Is this a casual idiom?
Chrissi: Yes. Also, usually after this idiom people say η ουρά έμεινε μόνο meaning "the tail is all that's left."
Eric: So there’s just a little bit more to go. What’s an example using this phrase?
Chrissi: You can say.. Δύο μόνο μέρες απομένουν μέχρι τις διακοπές· έφαγα τον γάιδαρο και η ουρά μου έμεινε μόνο.
Eric: .. which means "Only two days left of vacation; I ate the donkey and it's just the tail that's left." Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Eric: In this lesson you will learn about direct and indirect speech. In the dialogue for this lesson there were a couple of examples of reporting what someone else said. This is what we mean by direct and indirect speech.
Chrissi: Right. With direct speech, we are quoting exactly what was said and there a few ways to do this in Greek.
Eric: This is pretty straightforward, so we’ll get through this quickly and spend more time on something slightly more complicated later. Remember to check the lesson notes for examples!
Chrissi: Right. We can quote ourselves as if we are narrating, we can repeat a dialogue, or we can quote someone.
Eric: Let’s have an example of that last situation. If I say that Themis said “I don’t feel well,” how do we say that in Greek?
Chrissi: Ο Θέμης είπε: «Δεν αισθάνομαι καλά». What Themis said is at the end of the sentence, but like English, the quote can go at the start or end of the sentence. Punctuation in Greek is different from English however, so I suggest looking at the lesson notes to make sure you know how to use it.
Eric: Yes, it’s much easier to discuss punctuation when you can see the punctuation marks! Now how about indirect speech?
Chrissi: This is when we change the speech slightly. We might change pronouns, verb tenses, or other things because we’re talking about what was said in the past.
Eric: We do the same in English.
Chrissi: Right. With indirect speech we use reporting verbs instead of quotation marks.
Eric: Oh, things like “said,” such as “he said.”
Chrissi: Yes. “He said,” for example, is είπε. We then often follow this with conjunctions like ότι or πως.
Eric: Let’s have an example. First, the sentence “No, it’s not here” followed by “She said that it wasn’t there.”
Chrissi: Όχι, δεν είναι εδώ and Είπε πως δεν ήταν εκεί.
Eric: A few things were changed, such as adding in a pronoun and changing “here” to “there.”
Chrissi: If we are reporting direct speech in indirect speech, then there are a few things to think about.
Eric: Like what?
Chrissi: Sentences that in direct speech show the speaker's judgement, thoughts, and opinion are converted by using a reporting verb and ότι or πως.
Eric: Sentences that, in direct speech, use the imperative mood to command or make requests are converted by using the subjunctive mood.
Chrissi: Sentences that, in direct speech, use the subjunctive mood with negation to express a negative command or prohibition, and stay in the subjunctive mood in the indirect speech, but να always needs to be used.
Eric: And direct questions are turned into indirect questions.
Chrissi: Right. So a direct question is Πού το έβαλα
Eric: “Where did I put it?”
Chrissi: But the indirect question would be Αναρωτήθηκε πού το είχε βάλει.
Eric: “He wondered where he put it.”


Eric: Okay, that’s all for this lesson and this series. Thank you for listening, everyone! Bye!
Chrissi: Γεια χαρά!