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Lesson Transcript

Eric: Hi everyone, and welcome back to GreekPod101.com. This is Upper Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 17 - A Last-Minute Plan Change in Greece. Eric here.
Chrissi: Γεια σας. I'm Chrissi.
Eric: In this lesson, you’ll learn about the final categories of irregular verbs. The conversation takes place in the cruise office of a cruise ship.
Chrissi: It's between Katerina and Nikos.
Eric: The speakers are colleagues and friends, so they’ll be using informal Greek. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

Νίκος: Κατερίνα, πρέπει να κάνω μια αλλαγή στο πρόγραμμά σου.
Κατερίνα: Τι αλλαγή;
Νίκος: Η Σεσίλ δεν θα μπορέσει να κάνει το γαλλόφωνο τουρ στη γέφυρα του πλοίου σήμερα.
: Θα επιβιβαστούν κάποιοι Γάλλοι το μεσημέρι, οπότε θα ήθελα εκείνη να τους υποδεχτεί και εσύ να κάνεις το τουρ, για να μην αλλάζω την ώρα τελευταία στιγμή.
Κατερίνα: (απρόθυμα) ΟΚ... αν και το πρόγραμμά μου σήμερα είναι ιδιαίτερα επιβαρυμένο.
Νίκος: Μάλιστα... (...) Τότε θα σε βγάλω από τον διαγωνισμό που έχουμε το βράδυ στη ντίσκο. Θα μπορείς έτσι να κοιμηθείς λίγο νωρίτερα σήμερα.
Κατερίνα: Αα, τι καλά!
Νίκος: Ναι, μόνο που και πάλι, εσύ πρέπει να φουσκώσεις τα μπαλόνια για τον διαγωνισμό απόψε. Αυτό είναι ακόμα μέσα στα καθήκοντά σου!
Κατερίνα: Μην ανησυχείς. Θα τα ετοιμάσω όλα.
Νίκος: Ωραία. Μόνο ένα πράγμα ακόμα. Πάρε αυτά εδώ τα πιστοποιητικά για το τουρ. Η Σεσίλ έχει ήδη γράψει τα ονόματα των επιβατών επάνω.
: Το μόνο που χρειάζεται είναι να τα δώσεις στον πλοίαρχο να τα υπογράψει, και στο τέλος του τουρ να τα μοιράσεις στους επιβάτες. Μην το ξεχάσεις αυτό!
Κατερίνα: ΟΚ. Θα τα ετοιμάσω αυτά τώρα.
Eric: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Nikos: Katerina, I need to make a change in your schedule.
Katerina: What change?
Nikos: Cecille won't be able to do the French-speaking tour on the ship's bridge today.
: Some French people are embarking at noon, so I'd like her to welcome them and you to do the tour, so that I won't change the time at the last minute.
Katerina: (unwillingly) OK... although my schedule today is quite full.
Nikos: I see... (...) Then I'll remove you from the contest we're having at night at the disco. So you'll be able to sleep a bit earlier today.
Katerina: Oh, how nice!
Nikos: Yeah, only you still have to blow up the balloons for the contest tonight. That is still part of your duties.
Katerina: Don't worry. I will prepare everything.
Nikos: Good. Just one more thing. Take these tour certificates here. Cecille has already written the names of the passengers on them.
: The only thing that's needed is for you to give them to the captain so that he'll sign them, and to give them away to the passengers at the end of the tour. Don't forget about that!
Katerina: OK. I'll prepare those now.
Eric: Chrissi, I know that there are plenty of tours in Greece. I’ve seen ads for walking tours, land tours, sailing tours, boat tours, hiking tours...there are so many that sometimes it’s hard to decide which one to choose, especially if you’re only going to spend a short time in Greece and want to see as much as possible!
Chrissi: There are a lot of options, but I can give you some tips. If you’re in Athens or Thessaloniki try the walking tours. Bus tours will take you to the most popular tourist spots such as Delphi, Mycenae, Olympia, Epidaurus, Nafplion, the Corinth Canal, and Meteora.
Eric: And what about the sailing and boat tours?
Chrissi: Sailing tours are a great option for groups of friends or large families and are usually custom-planned, but some operators have specific itineraries for people traveling alone who want to join a larger group. Boat tours are very popular on the islands. I personally recommend them, since they’re usually affordable, last a half or whole day, and they often include a meal.
Eric: Listeners, please keep in mind that in Greece, only licensed guides are allowed to conduct tours in archaeological sites and museums.
Chrissi: Right. Also, authorities in specific areas may require licensed guides for local tours as well.
Eric: So please ask your tour operator whether your tour will include a licensed guide. Okay, now onto the vocab.
Eric: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Chrissi: γαλλόφωνος [natural native speed]
Eric: French-speaking, francophone
Chrissi: γαλλόφωνος [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: γαλλόφωνος [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: επιβιβάζομαι [natural native speed]
Eric: to embark, to board, to get on
Chrissi: επιβιβάζομαι [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: επιβιβάζομαι [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: υποδέχομαι [natural native speed]
Eric: to greet, to welcome
Chrissi: υποδέχομαι [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: υποδέχομαι [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: τελευταίος [natural native speed]
Eric: last
Chrissi: τελευταίος [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: τελευταίος [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: ιδιαίτερα [natural native speed]
Eric: quite, particularly, especially, extra
Chrissi: ιδιαίτερα [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: ιδιαίτερα [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: επιβαρυμένος [natural native speed]
Eric: burdened, encumbered, compromised, aggravated
Chrissi: επιβαρυμένος [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: επιβαρυμένος [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: διαγωνισμός [natural native speed]
Eric: contest, competition
Chrissi: διαγωνισμός [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: διαγωνισμός [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: φουσκώνω [natural native speed]
Eric: to inflate, to pump up, to bloat, to rise (for river or sea waters, dough or baked goods), to exaggerate (figuratively)
Chrissi: φουσκώνω [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: φουσκώνω [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have..
Chrissi: καθήκον [natural native speed]
Eric: duty
Chrissi: καθήκον [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: καθήκον [natural native speed]
Eric: And last..
Chrissi: πιστοποιητικό [natural native speed]
Eric: certificate
Chrissi: πιστοποιητικό [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: πιστοποιητικό [natural native speed]
Eric: Let's have a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is...
Chrissi: γαλλόφωνος
Eric: which means “French-speaking, francophone.”
Chrissi: The compound adjective γαλλόφωνος consists of the prefix γαλλό-...
Eric: ...which refers to the French language...
Chrissi: …and of the suffix -φωνος, which comes from the noun φωνή meaning “voice.” Γαλλόφωνος
Eric: So therefore it means “French-speaking,” or more precisely, “francophone.” You can use the same structure to describe all sort of language speakers.
Chrissi: Right, for example αγγλόφωνος...
Eric: “English speaker” or “anglophone.”
Chrissi: Ιταλόφωνος...
Eric: “Italian-speaker.”
Chrissi: Ισπανόφωνος...
Eric: “Spanish speaker.” You can use those words in any situation, whether formal or informal. Chrissi, can you give us an example using this word?
Chrissi: Sure. For example, you can say Μου αρέσει να παρακολουθώ γαλλόφωνες εκπομπές στην τηλεόραση για να πρακτικάρω τα γαλλικά μου.
Eric: Which means “I like watching French shows on TV so I can practice my French.” Okay, what's the next phrase?
Chrissi: τελευταία στιγμή
Eric: which means “last minute.”
Chrissi: Τελευταία στιγμή is made up of the adjective τελευταίος...
Eric: ...meaning “last” or “last one”
Chrissi: and the noun στιγμή
Eric: ...meaning “moment.”
Chrissi: Listeners, please note that Greeks never say τελευταίο λεπτό, which literally means “last minute.” Instead, please say τελευταία στιγμή, “last moment.”
Eric: So be careful when translating this from English to Greek. Chrissi, can we have a sample sentence please?
Chrissi: Πρόλαβα το τρένο κυριολεκτικά την τελευταία στιγμή.
Eric: “I caught the train literally at the last minute.” Okay, what's the last phrase?
Chrissi: επιβαρυμένο πρόγραμμα
Eric: This means “heavy schedule.”
Chrissi: Επιβαρυμένο literally means “burdened” and πρόγραμμα means “schedule” or “program.” In Greek, you can also use the phrase βαρύ πρόγραμμα instead of επιβαρυμένο πρόγραμμα.
Eric: This alternative phrase literally means “heavy schedule.” Chrissi, is there any difference between these two phrases?
Chrissi: Basically, they both work in any situation, but keep in mind that επιβαρυμένο πρόγραμμα sounds a little bit more well-spoken, so you might choose that in a more formal situation and βαρύ πρόγραμμα in a more casual situation.
Eric: Can you give us an example using this phrase?
Chrissi: Sure. For example, you can say Το ιδιαίτερα επιβαρυμένο πρόγραμμα του προέδρου μας δεν του επιτρέπει να χαλαρώνει και πολύ τις καθημερινές.
Eric: Meaning “The particularly heavy schedule of our president does not allow him to relax much during the weekdays.” Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Eric: In previous lessons, we introduced you to seven categories of Greek irregular verbs. In this lesson we’ll cover the last three. Okay. Let’s start with the 8th category.
Chrissi: The 8th category includes verbs that belong to conjugation A, but have some forms and tenses that are conjugated according to conjugation B.
Eric: Can you give us some examples of these verbs?
Chrissi: For example, the conjugation A verb βόσκω, “to graze.”
Eric: Let's see how this verb changes in different tenses. The active voice aorist tense is…
Chrissi: ...βόσκησα.
Eric: And the passive voice aorist tense is…
Chrissi: ...βοσκήθηκα… The -ησα and -ήθηκα endings are endings we use on conjugation B verbs, however βόσκω belongs to the conjugation A group of verbs because it ends in an unaccented -ω.
Eric: Listeners, check out the lesson notes where you will find a table with more examples of these verbs. We have marked their irregular endings in bold for easier study.
Chrissi: Let's see another example of this kind of irregular verb, the familiar θέλω, meaning “to want.”
Eric: The active voice aorist tense is…
Chrissi: ...θέλησα. Here again, we see the -ησα ending of conjugation B. As for the passive voice aorist tense, θέλω doesn't have a form.
Eric: OK. Now let's move to the 9th category.
Chrissi: This category includes verbs of conjugation B that form their aorist tense ending in -ασα, -εσα, -υσα with ύψιλον, -αξα, -ηξα with ήτα or -εψα.
Eric: Let's see some examples of verbs that belong in this category.
Chrissi: For example, αναιρώ, meaning “to undo,” or “to unsay,” μηνώ, meaning “to send a message, to inform,” βαστώ/-άω, meaning “to hold, to withstand,” ρουφώ/-άω, “to suck,” and ανακλώ, meaning “to reflect.”
Eric: Now let's take the last one and see how it can change in the same tenses that we mentioned earlier.
Chrissi: Okay. So ανακλώ in the active voice aorist tense will become ανάκλασα, in the passive voice aorist tense it’s ανακλάστηκα and in the passive voice perfect tense participle it’s ανακλασμένος.
Eric: There is no rule about which verbs get which ending, since they’re irregular, but in the lesson's PDF file we have included detailed tables with many verb examples for each ending we mentioned before.
Chrissi: Now, our last category for this lesson is the 10th category.
Eric: In this category, we have some participles that are formed irregularly and don’t take the normal endings that they would according to the type of verb they come from.
Chrissi: Right. Here we find verbs such as δυστυχώ, meaning “unfortunately,” πηγαίνω, meaning “to go,” “to lead,” “to match,” and αγανακτώ, “to get frustrated or exasperated.”
Eric: Let's see the passive voice perfect tense participle of the verb “to go.”
Chrissi: Instead of πηγημένος, we have πηγεμένος.
Eric: Listeners, you can find more details about this category and its verbs in the lesson notes.
Chrissi: You can also find an extensive list of the most commonly used irregular verbs there. Be sure to check them out!


Eric: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Chrissi: Γεια χαρά!