Dialogue - Greek

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Vocabulary

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ρουτίνα rutína routine, daily grind
ισχύς ischís power, force, strength, potency, validity
ωριμάζω orimázo to ripen, to mature, to age (for wine)
κρουαζιερόπλοιο kruazieróplio cruise ship, cruise liner
πλοιοσυνοδός pliosinodós host or hostess onboard a ship
απταίστως aptéstos fluently
ξενοδοχειακά xenodohiaká hotel industry, hotel management
βιογραφικό viografikó curriculum vitae, résumé
κολυμβητήριο kolimvitírio natatorium
λήγω lígo to expire, to end, to draw to a close

Lesson Notes

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Grammar

The Focus of this Lesson is an Introduction to Participles
Πολύ καλά... Δεσποινίς Γιαννίδου, είμαι εντυπωσιασμένη από το βιογραφικό σας, μπορώ να πω.
"Very well... Miss Giannidou, I must say I am impressed by your curriculum vitae."

Participles (μετοχές) are verbals in Greek. That means they are formed from a verb, but function as a different part of speech. They are similar to gerunds and participles in English.

Greek verbs usually have two participles.The active voice participle in the present tense (ενεστώτας), called ενεργητική μετοχή or ενεστωτική μετοχή, and the passive voice participle, called παθητική μετοχή.

Most verbs form their passive participle in the perfect tense (παρακείμενος), called μετοχή του παθητικού παρακειμένου, but a few verbs form either a passive participle or only in present tense (μετοχή του παθητικού ενεστώτα).

Εxamples of Greek participles:

  1. Περπατάω τραγουδώντας. (active voice participle)
    "I walk singing."
  2. Είναι σπασμένο. (perfect tense passive voice participle)
    "It is broken."
  3. Είναι εργαζόμενη μητέρα. (present tense passive voice participle)
    "She is a working mother."

 

Active Voice Participle (ενεργητική μετοχή)

This participle shows how exactly the action of the main verb of a sentence takes place. Thus, it has an adverbial function because it always defines a verb, showing "manner" or even "time."

Active voice participles are not conjugated and are formed by adding the ending -οντας or -ώντας to the present tense stem of a verb (for verb stems see Intermediate series, lesson 2).

● Τhe verbs of the first conjugation or conjugation A (Α' συζυγία) get the ending -οντας, For example:

κάνω ("to do") → κάν + οντας = κάνοντας
πλένω ("to wash") → πλέν + οντας = πλένοντας
χτενίζω ("to comb") → χτενίζ + οντας = χτενίζοντας

 

● The verbs of the second conjugation or conjugation B (B' συζυγία) get the ending -ώντας, For example:

ξεκινάω/-ώ ("to start") → ξεκιν + ώντας = ξεκινώντας
ρωτάω/-ώ ("to ask") → ρωτ + ώντας = ρωτώντας
θεωρώ ("to consider/to regard") → θεωρ + ώντας = θεωρώντας

* For A and B conjugation see Intermediate series, lesson 4.

 

Ιn English, active voice participles are usually rendered as gerunds. In example 1 above, the main verb is περπατάω, "I walk." If you ask "How?" the answer would be "singing," τραγουδώντας.

 

Active Voice Participles of Auxiliary Verbs

 

έχω ("to have") → έχοντας

είμαι ("to be") → όντας.

 

For example:

  1. Έφυγε έχοντας μόνο μια βαλίτσα μαζί του.
    "He left having only one suitcase with him."
  2. Όντας γιατρός, σε συμβουλεύω να κόψεις το κάπνισμα.
    "Being a doctor, I advise you to quit smoking."

 

Please note:

● Active voice participles can be negated with μη ("not"). For example:

  1. Μη έχοντας καθόλου λεφτά, έφυγε από το μαγαζί με άδεια χέρια.
    "Not having any money, she left the store empty handed."

● Under certain circumstances, a sentence may have a limitless number of active voice participles. For example:

  1. Ακούγοντας τα νέα, έφυγε τρέχοντας και χοροπηδώντας, φωνάζοντας ότι νικήσαμε.
    "When she heard the news, she left running and jumping, crying out that we won."
    (Here ακούγοντας shows 'time' and not 'manner'.)

● If weak forms of personal pronouns follow the -οντας ending participles, which are proparoxytone words, we pronounce them closely with the pronoun that follows. This results in adding an accent mark to the syllable right before the pronoun. When this happens, those personal pronouns are called "enclitics" (εγκλιτικά).
For example:

  1. Λέγοντάς της τα λόγια αυτά, έτρεμαν τα χέρια του.
    "His hands were shaking as he was telling her these words.

* For enclitics see Intermediate series, lesson 19.

 

Passive Voice Participle (παθητική μετοχή)

All passive voice participles end in -μενος or -μένος and they behave just like -ος, -η, -ο adjectives, meaning they have three genders and are inflected.

* For the declension of -ος, -η, -ο adjectives see Intermediate series, lesson 13.

Note that verbs that are found only in the active voice may form a passive voice participle. For example, ακουμπώ ("to touch") → ακουμπισμένος.

In English passive voice participles are usually rendered as present/past participles or adjectives.

For example:

  1. Βρεγμένα ρούχα.
    "Wet clothes."
  2. Τυρί τριμμένο.
    "Grated cheese."
  3. Ο αέρας είναι μολυσμένος.
    "The air is polluted."
  4. Το δάσος αυτό ανήκει σε προστατευόμενη περιοχή.
    "This forest belongs to a protected area."

 

Perfect Tense Passive Voice Participle (μετοχή του παθητικού παρακειμένου)

This participle shows that the action of the verb which the participle derives from has affected the subject of a sentence in the past (see examples 2 and 6-8 above).

It is formed using the passive voice aorist tense stem of a verb + the ending -μένος, -η, -ο. We will examine this stem and the participle formation details later in this series.

Keep in mind that A' conjugation verbs that have the letters π, β, φ and πτ as the verb character (i.e. the last letter of the verb stem), form the passive participle with double μ.

For example:

εγκαταλείπω ("to abandon") → εγκαταλειμμένος

σκάβω ("to dig") → σκαμμένος

βάφω ("to paint") → βαμμένος

καλύπτω ("to cover") → καλυμμένος

 

See also example 7.

Exceptions to this rule include the irregular verb βλέπω ("to see") → ιδωμένος and B' conjugation verbs:
χτυπώ ("to hit") → χτυπημένος

If an "o" sound comes before the -μένος, -η, -ο ending, it is written with ω:

λέω ("to say") → ειπωμένος

τρώω ("to eat") → φαγωμένος

ξηλώνω ("to unpick") → ξηλωμένος


Present Tense Passive Voice Participle (μετοχή του παθητικού ενεστώτα)

This participle shows that the action of the verb from which the participle derives is affecting the subject of a sentence in the present time (see example 3 and 9 above).

The few verbs that form this participle, form it from the present tense stem + one of the following endings:

-όμενος1

-ούμενος1

-άμενος2

and

-ώμενος3

 

1 Ending used for participles of many passive verbs (παθητικά ρήματα) and deponent verbs (αποθετικά ρήματα), the latter which have forms only in the passive voice. See examples 3 and 9.

2 Ending used for participles of a few archaic and medieval verbs, For example:
υφίσταμαι ("to undergo") → υφιστάμενος.

3 Ending used only for some scholarly verbs of the B' conjugation, For example:
τιμώ ("to honor") → τιμώμενος, προσδοκώ ("to anticipate") → προσδοκώμενος.

Some present tense passive participles have become nouns in modern Greek:

το πλεούμενο ("floating vessel"), το περιεχόμενο ("content"), ο/η προστατευόμενος/-η ("protégé/-e"), τα μελλούμενα ("things yet to come") etc.

 

Examples of participles from our dialogue:

  1. Δεσποινίς Γιαννίδου, θα ξεκινήσω πρώτα κάνοντας κάποιες ερωτήσεις ρουτίνας.
    "Miss Giannidou, first I'll start by asking some routine questions."
  2. Πολύ καλά... Δεσποινίς Γιαννίδου, είμαι εντυπωσιασμένη από το βιογραφικό σας, μπορώ να πω.
    "Very well... Miss Giannidou, I must say I am impressed by your curriculum vitae."
  3. Για τη συγκεκριμένη θέση οι συμβάσεις εργασίας έχουν οκτάμηνη ισχύ, ξεκινώντας τον Μάρτιο και λήγοντας τον Οκτώβριο.
    "For this particular position the employment contracts have an 8-month validity, starting from March and expiring in October."

For example:

Greek

English

Ο ανιψιός μου στραμπούληξε το πόδι του κάνοντας σκι.

"My nephew twisted his leg while skiing."

Το καπάκι του δοχείου αυτού είναι αποσπώμενο.

"The lid of this container is removable."

Όταν ένας σκύλος έχει την ουρά στα σκέλια πάει να πει ότι είναι φοβισμένος.

"When a dog has its tail between its legs it means that it is scared."

Cultural Insights

Etiquette and Grooming for Job Interviews


When you go to a job interview in Greece, the dress code might vary depending on the job field and how high the position is.

For example, in a more artistic field a casual chic look might be more appropriate than a suit, which would be more appropriate in an interview for a position in a bank or in a lawyer's office.

Whatever the interview may be, it's always best to stay away from jeans, T-shirts, revealing clothes, large pieces of jewelry, strong perfumes, elaborate hairstyles, and anything that might offend your interviewer, such as fur or outfits with political or religious messages.

Be sure to arrive on time, knock on all doors you come to, and wait for an answer before entering rooms. Then smile, shake hands firmly, use holiday related greetings during the holidays, sit only when offered a seat, maintain eye contact and positive body language, and always be polite.

 

Lesson Transcript

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INTRODUCTION
Eric: Hi everyone, and welcome to GreekPod101.com. This is Upper Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 1 - How Will You Do at a Greek Job Interview? Eric here.
Chrissi: Γεια σας. I'm Chrissi.
Eric: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use Greek participles. The conversation takes place in the recruitment department of a cruise line operating in Greece.
Chrissi: It's between 26 year-old Katerina Giannidou (Κατερίνα Γιαννίδου) and 42 year-old recruiter Eleni Lambri (Ελένη Λάμπρη).
Eric: The speakers are not friends, so they’ll be using formal Greek. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

Ελένη Λάμπρη: Δεσποινίς Γιαννίδου, θα ξεκινήσω πρώτα κάνοντας κάποιες ερωτήσεις ρουτίνας. Κατ' αρχάς σας πιάνει καθόλου ναυτία όταν βρίσκεστε σε πλοίο;
Κατερίνα Γιαννίδου: Όσες φορές βρέθηκα σε πλοίο δεν είχα ποτέ κανένα απολύτως πρόβλημα.
Ελένη Λάμπρη: Γνωρίζετε κολύμπι;
Κατερίνα Γιαννίδου: Ναι. Πήγαινα κολυμβητήριο όταν ήμουν μικρή.
Ελένη Λάμπρη: Πολύ καλά... Δεσποινίς Γιαννίδου, είμαι εντυπωσιασμένη από το βιογραφικό σας, μπορώ να πω.
: Έχετε πλούσια εμπειρία στα ξενοδοχειακά και μιλάτε απταίστως 5 γλώσσες.
: Τι σας ώθησε να κάνετε αίτηση για τη θέση της πλοιοσυνοδού;
Κατερίνα Γιαννίδου: Για να είμαι ειλικρινής, κυρία Λάμπρη, πάντα έβρισκα τα κρουαζιερόπλοια ιδιαίτερα συναρπαστικά.
: Τώρα τελευταία όμως, άρχισα να το σκέφτομαι πολύ πιο σοβαρά.
: Θα ήθελα πολύ να μου δοθεί η ευκαιρία να δοκιμαστώ πάνω σε αυτό, έτσι ώστε να αποκτήσω καινούριες εμπειρίες οι οποίες θα με βοηθήσουν να ωριμάσω περισσότερο ως άνθρωπος, αλλά και ως επαγγελματίας βεβαίως.
Ελένη Λάμπρη: Μάλιστα. Για τη συγκεκριμένη θέση οι συμβάσεις εργασίας έχουν οκτάμηνη ισχύ, ξεκινώντας τον Μάρτιο και λήγοντας τον Οκτώβριο. Είστε σύμφωνη με αυτό;
Κατερίνα Γιαννίδου: Ναι, είμαι.
Eric: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Eleni Lambri: Miss Giannidou, first I’ll start by asking some routine questions. First of all, do you get any nausea when you are on a ship?
Katerina Giannidou: Of all the times I have been on a ship, I have never had any problems.
Eleni Lambri: Do you know how to swim?
Katerina Giannidou: Yes. I took swimming lessons as a child.
Eleni Lambri: Very well… Miss Giannidou, I must say I am impressed by your curriculum vitae.
: You have great experience in the hotel industry and you speak five languages fluently.
: What made you apply for a hostess job onboard a ship?
Katerina Giannidou: To be honest, Mrs. Lambri, I always thought cruise ships were particularly exciting.
: Recently, however, I started to think about it much more seriously.
: I would like to have the opportunity to test myself in that, so that I can have new experiences that will help me mature not only as a person, but as a professional as well.
Eleni Lambri: I see. For this particular position the employment contracts have an eight-month validity, starting from March and expiring in October. Are you in accordance with that?
Katerina Giannidou: Yes, I am.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Eric: It seems like the interview started smoothly for Katerina. Chrissi, can you tell us about the dress code for job interviews in Greece?
Chrissi: Well, it varies depending on the type of job and the interviewee's position in hierarchy.
Eric: So would it be a bit more casual for an artistic job, and more formal for a position in a bank?
Chrissi: Something like that. If you’re not sure about the dress code, just stay away from jeans, T-shirts, and revealing clothes.
Eric: That's a good tip. Other than the dress code, do you have any interview tips that would be good for our listeners to know?
Chrissi: Make sure you arrive on time. When you arrive at the office for an interview, knock on the door and wait for an answer before you enter the room.
Eric: And smile as you enter the room, too.
Chrissi: That’s right. Also, when you shake hands, do so firmly. During holiday observations, use holiday-related greetings.
Eric: And wait until you are offered a seat before sitting. Okay, let's move on to the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Eric: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is...
Chrissi: ρουτίνα [natural native speed]
Eric: routine, daily grind
Chrissi: ρουτίνα [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: ρουτίνα [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: κολυμβητήριο [natural native speed]
Eric: natatorium
Chrissi: κολυμβητήριο [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: κολυμβητήριο [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: βιογραφικό [natural native speed]
Eric: curriculum vitae, résumé
Chrissi: βιογραφικό [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: βιογραφικό [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: ξενοδοχειακά [natural native speed]
Eric: hotel industry, hotel management
Chrissi: ξενοδοχειακά [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: ξενοδοχειακά [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: απταίστως [natural native speed]
Eric: fluently
Chrissi: απταίστως [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: απταίστως [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: πλοιοσυνοδός [natural native speed]
Eric: host or hostess on board a ship
Chrissi: πλοιοσυνοδός [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: πλοιοσυνοδός [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: κρουαζιερόπλοιο [natural native speed]
Eric: cruise ship, cruise liner
Chrissi: κρουαζιερόπλοιο [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: κρουαζιερόπλοιο [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: ωριμάζω [natural native speed]
Eric: to ripen, to mature, to age (for wine)
Chrissi: ωριμάζω [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: ωριμάζω [natural native speed]
Eric: Next we have...
Chrissi: ισχύς [natural native speed]
Eric: power, force, strength, potency, validity
Chrissi: ισχύς [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: ισχύς [natural native speed]
Eric: And last...
Chrissi: λήγω [natural native speed]
Eric: to expire, to end, to draw to a close
Chrissi: λήγω [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Chrissi: λήγω [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Eric: Let's take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is...
Chrissi: ...κολυμβητήριο.
Eric: Which means “natatorium,” or a building that’s designed to have a pool in it. Does this neuter noun come from ancient Greek?
Chrissi: Yes it does! It derives from the verb κολυμβώ. In modern Greek, κολυμβώ has changed to κολυμπώ, meaning “to swim”.
Eric: And what does its suffix mean?
Chrissi: The neuter suffix -τήριο signifies location. So, κολυμβώ plus -τήριο form the word κολυμβητήριο.
Eric: A place where we swim, or a natatorium.
Chrissi: Listeners, please keep in mind that κολυμβητήριο has an athletic connotation.
Eric: That means we can't use this word to refer to the swimming pool of a hotel or a house.
Chrissi: That’s right. In that case, you can use the feminine noun πισίνα to mean “swimming pool” instead.
Eric: Can you give us an example using this word? One that's a little bit complicated?
Chrissi: Sure. Τα κολυμβητήρια είναι μία καλή λύση για αυτούς που θέλουν να κολυμπάνε τον χειμώνα χωρίς να κρυώνουν.
Eric: “Natatoriums are a good solution for those who want to swim in the winter without getting cold.” Okay, what's the next word?
Chrissi: Βιογραφικό.
Eric: “Curriculum vitae, résumé”. This is a compound neuter noun.
Chrissi: We can break it down into two parts. The first part is the noun βίος, meaning “life” in ancient and modern Greek, and the second part comes from the verb γράφω, meaning “to write”. So, βιογραφικό means “curriculum vitae” or “résumé”.
Eric: Listeners, don't confuse this word with "biography" just because it sounds similar.
Chrissi: Yes, "biography" in Greek is βιογραφία.
Eric: There's also a longer version for résumé, right?
Chrissi: Yes. Sometimes, instead of βιογραφικό, it might also be referred to as βιογραφικό σημείωμα, with σημείωμα meaning “note”.
Eric: Can you give us an example using this word?
Chrissi: Sure. For example, you can say Στο ίντερνετ μπορεί κανείς να βρει πολλές οδηγίες και πρότυπα για τη δημιουργία ενός βιογραφικού.
Eric: “On the Internet one can find many instructions and templates for the creation of a curriculum vitae.” Okay, what's the next word?
Chrissi: Ισχύς.
Eric: Meaning “power,” “force”, “strength”, “potency”, or “validity.”
Chrissi: Listeners, ισχύς is a feminine noun, even though it has an -ύς ending, which we can see in Greek masculine adjectives. There is no plural for this word.
Eric: Is there anything special about how it is declined?
Chrissi: Ισχύς is actually a remnant of ancient Greek, so its declension follows an archaic pattern: η ισχύς, της ισχύος, την ισχύ, ισχύ.
Eric: Can you give us an example using this word?
Chrissi: Of course: Η αγοραστική ισχύς της χώρας αυτής έχει μειωθεί με την κρίση των τελευταίων ετών.
Eric: “The purchasing power of this country has decreased with the crisis of the recent years.” Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Eric: In this lesson you’ll learn how to use Greek participles.
Chrissi: Participles in Greek are called μετοχές and are similar to gerunds and participles in English.
Eric: Greek verbs usually have two participles.
Chrissi: Right. The active voice participle in the present tense, called ενεργητική μετοχή or ενεστωτική μετοχή, and the passive voice participle, called παθητική μετοχή.
Eric: The aсtive voice participles show how exactly the action of the main verb of a sentence takes place, showing “manner” or even “time”. Ιn English, active voice participles are usually rendered as gerunds, that answer the question “how?”.
Chrissi: Active voice participles are not conjugated and are formed by adding the unaccented ending -οντας with όμικρον or an accented -ώντας with ωμέγα to the present tense stem of a verb.
Eric: OK. But, how do you know which ending to use for each verb?
Chrissi: Well, it depends on the verb conjugation. Τhe verbs of the first conjugation, or conjugation A, get the unaccented ending -οντας with όμικρον.
Eric: For example?
Chrissi: Let's take the verb κάνω, which means “to do”. The present tense stem is κάν-. All you need to do here is add -οντας after it.
Eric: So, altogether we will have…
Chrissi: ...κάνοντας, meaning "doing".
Eric: And another example?
Chrissi: The verb πλένω, meaning “to wash”. The active voice participle will be πλένοντας, meaning "washing."
Eric: That sounds easy! What happens to the verbs of the second conjugation, or conjugation B?
Chrissi: Those verbs get the accented ending -ώντας with ωμέγα.
Eric: Can you give us some examples?
Chrissi: OK. For example, θεωρώ means “to consider" or "to regard”. The present tense stem is θεωρ-. Just add the accented -ώντας and you will get θεωρώντας, meaning "considering".
Eric: Chrissi, can you give us some sample sentences using active voice participles?
Chrissi: Sure. For example: Περπατάω τραγουδώντας.
Eric: “I walk singing.” Next?
Chrissi: Έφυγε έχοντας μόνο μια βαλίτσα μαζί του.
Eric: “He left having only one suitcase with him.” Ok, now let's move to the passive voice participles.
Chrissi: Here, things are different. All passive voice participles end in -μενος, which can be accented ( -μένος) or not. They behave just like -ος, -η, -ο adjectives, meaning they have three genders and are inflected.
Eric: Greek passive voice participles are usually rendered in English as present or past participles or adjectives.
Chrissi: Listeners, keep in mind that verbs that are found only in the active voice may form a passive voice participle.
Eric: Can you give us some general examples?
Chrissi: For example: Ο αέρας είναι μολυσμένος.
Eric: “The air is polluted.”
Chrissi: Or Βρεγμένα ρούχα.
Eric: “Wet clothes.” The passive voice participles may exist in two different tenses.
Chrissi: The perfect tense and the present tense.
Eric: The perfect tense passive voice participle shows that the action of the verb that the participle is derived from has affected the subject of a sentence in the past.
Chrissi: And the present tense passive voice participle shows that the action of the verb that the participle is derived from is affecting the subject of a sentence in the present time.
Eric: Do all verbs form both of these passive participles?
Chrissi: Not all. Most verbs form their passive participle in perfect tense or παρακείμενος. This is then called μετοχή του παθητικού παρακειμένου, but a very small group of verbs form their passive participle also or only in present tense, or ενεστώτας. That's called μετοχή του παθητικού ενεστώτα.
Eric: I see. Listeners, you can find more information about Greek participles in the lesson notes.
Chrissi: Please study them carefully as we will be examining participles in full detail in the next few lessons.

Outro

Eric: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Chrissi: Γεια χαρά!