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Intermediate, Season 1, lesson 8
A Trip to the Greek Vet
INTRODUCTION
Brandon: Hello everyone, and welcome back to GreekPod101.com. This is Intermediate, Season 1, Lesson 8: A Trip to the Greek Vet. I’m Brandon.
Stefania: And I’m Stefania.
Brandon: In this lesson, we'll focus on the active voice perfect, past perfect, and future perfect tense, and on their formation elements.
Stefania: This conversation takes place at a veterinary clinic. If you remember from our previous lesson, Natalia’s cat is ill.
Brandon: The conversation is between Natalia and a veterinarian.
Stefania: The characters aren’t friends, so they’ll be using formal Greek.
Brandon: Okay, let's listen to the conversation!

Lesson conversation

Ναταλία: Γιατρέ, τι έχει η Τσίκου μου;
Κτηνίατρος: Τίποτα το ανησυχητικό. Ένα κρυολογηματάκι μόνο.
Ναταλία: Την είχα κάνει μπάνιο πριν από δύο μέρες. Λέτε να ήταν αυτό;
Κτηνίατρος: Πιθανότατα, ναι. Αλλά μην ανησυχείς. Η θερμοκρασία της είναι κανονική. Οπότε δεν έχει κάποια λοίμωξη και δεν χρειάζεται αντιβίωση όπως την τελευταία φορά. Ελπίζω να μην της έχεις δώσει ήδη.
Ναταλία: Όχι, όχι. Γι' αυτό ήρθα σ' εσάς πρώτα. Τι μπορώ να κάνω εγώ για να αισθανθεί καλύτερα;
Κτηνίατρος: Τίποτα. Ξεκούραση θέλει και πολύ ενυδάτωση. Θα σου πρότεινα να της δώσεις και κάτι ειδικές κονσέρβες που έχω εδώ, που είναι πλούσιες σε βιταμίνες. Θα της κάνουν καλό.
Ναταλία: Πόσες μέρες μπορεί να κρατήσει το κρυολόγημα;
Κτηνίατρος: Υπολογίζω ότι θα έχει βελτιωθεί σε κάνα δυο μέρες ακόμη. Αν όχι, ή αν δεις ότι η όρεξή της έχει κοπεί, ξαναφέρ' τη μου.
Ναταλία: Μάλιστα γιατρέ. Λοιπόν εμείς να πηγαίνουμε τώρα. Σας ευχαριστούμε πολύ!
Κτηνίατρος: Να 'στε καλά!
Brandon: Now let’s hear it with the English translation.
Ναταλία: Γιατρέ, τι έχει η Τσίκου μου;
Brandon: Doctor, what's wrong with my Tsikou?
Κτηνίατρος: Τίποτα το ανησυχητικό. Ένα κρυολογηματάκι μόνο.
Brandon: Nothing to worry about. Just a minor cold.
Ναταλία: Την είχα κάνει μπάνιο πριν από δύο μέρες. Λέτε να ήταν αυτό;
Brandon: I washed her two days ago. Do you think it's because of that?
Κτηνίατρος: Πιθανότατα, ναι. Αλλά μην ανησυχείς. Η θερμοκρασία της είναι κανονική. Οπότε δεν έχει κάποια λοίμωξη και δεν χρειάζεται αντιβίωση όπως την τελευταία φορά. Ελπίζω να μην της έχεις δώσει ήδη.
Brandon: Probably, yes. But don't worry. Her temperature is normal. So she doesn't have an infection and she doesn't need antibiotics like last time. I hope you haven't given her any already.
Ναταλία: Όχι, όχι. Γι' αυτό ήρθα σ' εσάς πρώτα. Τι μπορώ να κάνω εγώ για να αισθανθεί καλύτερα;
Brandon: No, no. That's why I came to you first. What can I do to make her feel better?
Κτηνίατρος: Τίποτα. Ξεκούραση θέλει και πολύ ενυδάτωση. Θα σου πρότεινα να της δώσεις και κάτι ειδικές κονσέρβες που έχω εδώ, που είναι πλούσιες σε βιταμίνες. Θα της κάνουν καλό.
Brandon: Nothing. She needs rest and a lot of hydration. I would recommend you take home some special food cans that I have here containing lots of vitamins. They’ll do her good.
Ναταλία: Πόσες μέρες μπορεί να κρατήσει το κρυολόγημα;
Brandon: How many days will the cold last?
Κτηνίατρος: Υπολογίζω ότι θα έχει βελτιωθεί σε κάνα δυο μέρες ακόμη. Αν όχι, ή αν δεις ότι η όρεξή της έχει κοπεί, ξαναφέρ' τη μου.
Brandon: I reckon it’ll improve in a couple of days. If not, or if you see her appetite decrease, bring her back to me.
Ναταλία: Μάλιστα γιατρέ. Λοιπόν εμείς να πηγαίνουμε τώρα. Σας ευχαριστούμε πολύ!
Brandon: Yes, doctor. Well, we better be off now. Thank you very much!
Κτηνίατρος: Να 'στε καλά!
Brandon: You are welcome!
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Brandon: Since we’re still talking about animals, I was wondering about all of the stray animals I’ve seen in Greece.
Stefania: Yeah, they’re everywhere!
Brandon: Aren't people bothered by this?
Stefania: Not really. Many people feed them by leaving bowls of food and water outside their buildings. It's also common to see a well-fed dog without a collar lying around at a port terminal, train station, or even outside a shop. Workers feed them because they see them as companions.
Brandon: Are there any cases of aggressive dogs?
Stefania: Very rarely. Most dogs are friendly because they’re used to humans. However, parents with small kids should always be cautious.
Brandon: Does animal control collect and put down these stray animals?
Stefania: No! We’re against massive killings of innocent and healthy animals!
Brandon: That's a relief to know! Okay, now let’s move on to the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Brandon Let's take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
The first word we shall see is:
Stefania κρυολογηματάκι [natural native speed]
Brandon a cold (common cold)
Stefania κρυολογηματάκι [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania κρυολογηματάκι [natural native speed]
Next:
Stefania πιθανότατα [natural native speed]
Brandon probably, very likely
Stefania πιθανότατα [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania πιθανότατα [natural native speed]
Next:
Stefania θερμοκρασία [natural native speed]
Brandon temperature
Stefania θερμοκρασία [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania θερμοκρασία [natural native speed]
Next:
Stefania λοίμωξη [natural native speed]
Brandon infection, infectious disease
Stefania λοίμωξη [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania λοίμωξη [natural native speed]
Next:
Stefania ξεκούραση [natural native speed]
Brandon rest
Stefania ξεκούραση [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania ξεκούραση [natural native speed]
Next:
Stefania ενυδάτωση [natural native speed]
Brandon hydration
Stefania ενυδάτωση [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania ενυδάτωση [natural native speed]
Next:
Stefania κονσέρβα [natural native speed]
Brandon food can, tin
Stefania κονσέρβα [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania κονσέρβα [natural native speed]
Next:
Stefania κρατώ [natural native speed]
Brandon to hold, to last, to withstand
Stefania κρατώ [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania κρατώ [natural native speed]
Next:
Stefania βελτιώνω [natural native speed]
Brandon to improve
Stefania βελτιώνω [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania βελτιώνω [natural native speed]
And Last:
Stefania όρεξη [natural native speed]
Brandon appetite, being in the mood for, zest
Stefania όρεξη [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Stefania όρεξη [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Brandon: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. What's our first word?
Stefania: First we have Ξεκούραση, a compound noun consisting of the noun κούραση, meaning "tiredness," and the prefix ξε- which is similar to the English prefix "de-" or "un-." So ξεκούραση means...
Brandon: … "rest!”
Stefania: That’s right! It can be used for both physical and mental rest, just like we use κούραση for both mental and physical fatigue. Next we have the verb κρατώ or κρατάω.
Brandon: It means "to hold," "to last," or "to withstand."
Stefania: Yes. However, the meaning of this verb varies a lot depending on the context.
Brandon: For example?
Stefania: Κρατάω σημειώσεις means "I keep notes;" κρατάω κακία means "I hold a grudge;" and κρατιέμαι καλά, which is in the passive voice, means "I am in good condition," as in, "My physical condition is good."
Brandon: So the meaning does vary a lot!
Stefania: Yes, it does. In the lesson notes, you can find more examples.
Brandon: Okay. So what's the last word?
Stefania: The feminine noun όρεξη, meaning "appetite," "being in the mood for" or "zest."
Brandon: How do you say bon appétit in Greek?
Stefania: Καλή όρεξη. "Appetite" is the literal translation of this. We also use όρεξη in reference to a more figurative "appetite." For example, when we’re in the mood to do something specific, we say, έχω όρεξη για…
Brandon: or "I'm in the mood for...".
Stefania: Yes. When someone has όρεξη in Greek, that means that the person is enthusiastic about doing something specific. It is similar to "zest" in English.
Brandon: Okay. I think that all makes sense. Now onto the grammar.

Lesson focus

Brandon: In this lesson, you’ll learn about the active voice perfect, past perfect and future perfect tense, and on their formation elements. That sounds like a lot!
Stefania: Not at all. They’re a piece of cake! So let's start with the first one, which is called παρακείμενος in Greek. This is similar to the English perfect tense.
Brandon: So, it denotes that an action or a circumstance occurred earlier than the present time.
Stefania: That’s right! To form the active voice perfect tense in Greek, you need the auxiliary verb έχω, "to have," in its present tense, plus the active voice infinitive. You create this infinitive by using the active voice aorist stem without the augmentation, plus the ending -ει. This goes for both the first and the second conjugation group of verbs.
Brandon: So the formula is "ého," plus the infinitive.
Stefania: Yes. For example έχω δώσει, means "I have given." To form the other persons, you only have to conjugate the auxiliary verb. The infinitive will always stay the same. Keep in mind that this tense can be also used in subjunctive mood. Just add the να on the front and that's it!
Brandon: That sounds really easy! What's next?
Stefania: Next we have υπερσυντέλικος, which is similar to the English past perfect tense. It denotes that an action or a circumstance occurred before another action or specific time in the past.
Brandon: And how do we form this tense?
Stefania: For the active voice, again, you need the auxiliary verb έχω in its past tense, plus the active voice infinitive.
Brandon: So the formula here is "íha," plus the infinitive.
Stefania: That’s right. For example είχα κάνει, means "I had done." This tense and the next one are only used in indicative mood.
Brandon: Οkay. And what's the next one?
Stefania: Μέλλοντας συντελεσμένος, which is similar to the English future perfect tense and denotes that an action or a circumstance will occur before another action or specific time in the future.
Brandon: I see. And do you form it again with the verb "to have?"
Stefania: Yes, but this time in its future tense. The formula here is θα έχω...
Brandon: ...plus the infinitive!
Stefania: Correct. For example, θα έχω βελτιωθεί. So, by now you have learned all the Greek tenses! Congratulations!
Brandon: These tenses apply in both the active and passive voice. In the next lesson, we’ll review the active voice verb forms and we’ll introduce the passive voice soon after this.

Outro

Brandon: So, that’s all for this lesson, everyone! Thanks for listening, and we’ll see you next time.
Stefania: Γεια χαρά!
MARKETING PIECE
Stefania: Do you know the number 1 reason people don't study a second language?
Brandon: Not enough time.
Stefania: You’re very busy.
Brandon: We know. And that’s why we have one click lesson downloads on iTunes!
Stefania: Subscribe on iTunes.
Brandon: All Free materials will be automatically downloaded for each new lesson as they become available.
Stefania: Basic and premium members, get all access to bonus lesson materials too!
Brandon: Save time. Spend more time studying.
Stefania: Never worry about missing another lesson again!
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18 Comments

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GreekPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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Hi Listeners! Do you have pets?

Steven
Thursday at 12:24 AM
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Γεαι σου!

Δεν έχω κατοικίδιες, θα ήθελα να έχω μια γάτα αλλα η γυναίκα μου θελει ένασ σκύλος.


PD: Αυτά τα μαθήματα μου αρεσουν παρα πολύ, τελικά καταλαβω το αόριστο και θα μπόρω να μιλήσω στο παρελθόν και στο μελλον.


Σασ ευχαριστώ!

GreekPod101.com Verified
Friday at 04:23 AM
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Παρακαλώ, Denise, να 'σαι καλά!


Stefania

Team GreekPod101.com

Denise
Thursday at 12:34 PM
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Thank you, Stefania!

GreekPod101.com Verified
Thursday at 08:02 AM
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Hi Denise,


Interesting questions!


I would either use παρακαλώ (neuter/formal) or τίποτα (more friendly) when someone would thank me.

I would add να ᾽στε καλά ("may you be well") after either of those two to be even more friendly, especially if I liked that person (as opposed to disliking them) and that person is indeed leaving.


Yes, talking to God is always done in informal language. Never ever use the plural to talk to God! Imagine addressing God saying Θεέ μου, επουράνιε πατέρα, (Oh God, father in heaven) and then saying βοηθήστε με (help me (sir)) in formal Greek instead of βοήθησέ με (help me)! It would sound weird because like you said, He needs to be addressed as a father. Great point!


All the best,


Stefania

Team GreekPod101.com

Denise
Wednesday at 11:16 PM
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Actually, I shouldn't have been so surprised to see the informal for talking to God. I have been reading a lot of the psalms in Greek, and I see the 2nd person singular is always used. I guess because God is our father, He should be spoken to as such.

Denise
Wednesday at 11:30 AM
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Stefania, in regard to saying "you're welcome," when would you use να ᾽στε καλά versus τίποτα versus παρακαλώ? I had only previously thought of using να ᾽στε καλά in its literal sense of "may you be well" when saying goodbye to someone.


I have another question for you if you don't mind. I looked at that very nice guide that you made for knowing when to speak formally or informally to someone and was surprised to see the informal for talking to God. Is that always the case?


Thanks,

Denise

GreekPod101.com
Wednesday at 02:27 PM
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Hi Mary Ann Hetzer,


That's a good observation.


The veterinarian here uses informal speech, although the girl uses formal speech. This is because his is of a higher status than the girl, something that is completely normal in Greek. In the end he uses the plural not to be formal, but because he is saying goodbye to the girl and here sister that is implied that is there too (εμείς να πηγαίνουμε τώρα).


This is a guide I've made that will help you see when to speak formally or informally to someone:

https://bit.ly/2PGLU4J


I hope you'll find this useful😄!


As for your cats, you can say "Τρεις αρσενικές και τρεις θηλυκές." Αγόρια and κορίτσια refer to humans only.😉


Kind regards,


Stefania

Team GreekPod101.com

Mary Ann Hetzer
Wednesday at 02:05 AM
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Εμείς έχουμε έξι γάτες. Τρια αγόρια και τρια κορίτσια. We have six cats. Three boys and three girls.


Mary Ann Hetzer
Wednesday at 02:02 AM
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Ι am not sure that the veterinarian is consistently using formal Greek. Isn't "Αλλά μην ανησυχείς" informal?

GreekPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 08:55 AM
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Γεια σου Elias!


Τι καλά που τα πέρασες όμορφα! Και χαίρομαι που τώρα μου γράφεις πιο πολλά ελληνικά?.


Μερικές φορές αισθάνομαι κι εγώ μια ανεξήγητη αγάπη για κάποια χώρα ή πόλη εκτός Ελλάδας. Είναι ένα ωραίο συναίσθημα.? Μπορώ να ρωτήσω από πού είσαι;


Ελπίζω να συνεχίσεις τα μαθήματά σου και να γίνεις ακόμα καλύτερος?!


Σε χαιρετώ,


Στεφανία

Team GreekPod101.com