Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Fay: Hello, and welcome back to GreekPod101.com. Beginner Season 1, Lesson 22 - Enough Greek Culture: Let's Get Some Lunch!
Chrissi: Chrissi here. Hello, everyone.
Fay: I’m Fay. What are we learning in this lesson?
Chrissi: We are second declension nouns.
Fay: The conversation takes place at the Acropolis archaeological site.
Chrissi: It’s between Petra Gordon and her Greek host, Danai and Kostantina.
Fay: The characters are friends so the conversation is informal.
Chrissi: Let’s listen.

Lesson conversation

Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Πέρασε η ώρα. Καλή η τέχνη αλλά με έπιασε πείνα!
Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Έχεις ακόμα διάθεση για ελληνική κουζίνα;
Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Και βέβαια! Γιατί, έχεις καμιά άλλη πρόταση;
Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Όχι, απλώς σκεφτόμουν να πάμε προς τη θάλασσα, έτσι για αλλαγή. Κωσταντίνα, τι λες;
Κωσταντίνα Παπαδοπούλου: Αν η Πέτρα μπορεί να κάνει υπομονή!
Fay: Let’s listen to the conversation one time slowly.
Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Πέρασε η ώρα. Καλή η τέχνη αλλά με έπιασε πείνα!
Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Έχεις ακόμα διάθεση για ελληνική κουζίνα;
Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Και βέβαια! Γιατί, έχεις καμιά άλλη πρόταση;
Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Όχι, απλώς σκεφτόμουν να πάμε προς τη θάλασσα, έτσι για αλλαγή. Κωσταντίνα, τι λες;
Κωσταντίνα Παπαδοπούλου: Αν η Πέτρα μπορεί να κάνει υπομονή!
Fay: Now let’s listen to the conversation with English translation.2
Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Πέρασε η ώρα. Καλή η τέχνη αλλά με έπιασε πείνα!
Fay: It's getting late. Art is fine, but I'm getting hungry!
Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Έχεις ακόμα διάθεση για ελληνική κουζίνα;
Fay: Are you still in the mood for Greek food?
Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Και βέβαια! Γιατί, έχεις καμιά άλλη πρόταση;
Fay: Sure! Why, do you have another suggestion?
Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Όχι, απλώς σκεφτόμουν να πάμε προς τη θάλασσα, έτσι για αλλαγή. Κωσταντίνα, τι λες;
Fay: No. I was just thinking that we could go toward the sea for a change. Kostantina, what do you think?
Κωσταντίνα Παπαδοπούλου: Αν η Πέτρα μπορεί να κάνει υπομονή!
Fay: If Petra can be patient enough!
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Fay: Our main character sounds a little Philistine! I mean, “art is fine but let’s eat” on the Acropolis?
Chrissi: Unfortunately, this is an attitude very common even among Greeks.
Fay: You mean Greeks aren’t art lovers anymore?
Chrissi: Well, compared to ancient Greeks, probably not. Today, most Greeks focus on more mundane things like cars, electronics, et cetera.
Fay: But there is still plenty of culture in Greece, isn’t there?
Chrissi: Of course there is! And luckily, you can still see some traditions unbroken after 3,000 years, like ancient drama.
Fay: So what is the problem?
Chrissi: Mostly that arts and culture in general are not very supported by the state or by the public. So artists really go through tough times.
Fay: Don’t they everywhere?
Chrissi: There might be something in what you say. Anyway…
VOCAB LIST
Fay: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson. First…
Chrissi: τέχνη [natural native speed].
Fay: Art.
Chrissi: τέχνη [slowly - broken down by syllable]. τέχνη [natural native speed]
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: διάθεση [natural native speed].
Fay: Mood.
Chrissi: διάθεση [slowly - broken down by syllable]. διάθεση [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: κουζίνα [natural native speed].
Fay: Cuisine, kitchen.
Chrissi: κουζίνα [slowly - broken down by syllable]. κουζίνα [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: Και βέβαια [natural native speed].
Fay: Of course.
Chrissi: Και βέβαια [slowly - broken down by syllable]. Και βέβαια [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: πρόταση [natural native speed].
Fay: Suggestion, proposal.
Chrissi: πρόταση [slowly - broken down by syllable]. πρόταση [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: Σκεφτόμουν [natural native speed].
Fay: I was thinking.
Chrissi: Σκεφτόμουν [slowly - broken down by syllable]. Σκεφτόμουν [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: θάλασσα [natural native speed].
Fay: Sea.
Chrissi: θάλασσα [slowly - broken down by syllable]. θάλασσα [natural native speed].
Chrissi: αλλαγή [natural native speed].
Fay: Alteration, change, modification.
Chrissi: αλλαγή [slowly - broken down by syllable]. αλλαγή [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: υπομονή [natural native speed].
Fay: Patience.
Chrissi: υπομονή [slowly - broken down by syllable]. υπομονή [natural native speed].
KEY VOCABULARY AND PHRASES
Fay: Let's take a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson. A few interesting side points in this lesson. First, how do you say “be patient” in Greek?
Chrissi: You don’t! Greeks are notoriously impatient!
Fay: But isn’t there a similar expression?
Chrissi: Well, I suppose. We say Κάνε υπομονή (Kane ypomoni). This is a fixed expression, so you can use it as it is. Listeners, repeat it. Κάνε υπομονή (Kane ypomoni).
Fay: This is good advice for someone learning a foreign language! So in Greek, someone is not patient; he “does” patience. Κάνω (Kano) means “I do,” right?
Chrissi: That’s right.
Fay: Next, how do you say “I’m hungry” and “I’m thirsty”?
Chrissi: We don’t normally use adjectives for those; we prefer the verbs.
Fay: Examples?
Chrissi: Πεινάω- πάμε να φάμε κάτι; (Peinao—pame na fame kati?) is “I’m hungry—shall we go to eat something?”.
Fay: And for “thirsty”?
Chrissi: Δειψάω- έχει κρύο νερό στο ψυγείο; (Deipsao—echei kryo nero sto psygeio?) means “I’m thirsty—is there cold water in the refrigerator?”.
Fay: Useful sentences. Listeners, did you repeat them?
Chrissi: Anything else we should examine?
Fay: Well, κουζίνα (kouzina) seems to have more than one meaning. Shall we look at it?
Chrissi: Sure. Κουζίνα (Kouzina) can mean either “kitchen” or “style of cooking.”
Fay: Thought so. Examples?
Chrissi: Τρώω πρωινό στην κουζίνα (Troo proino stin kouzina) means “I’m having breakfast in the kitchen.” And Μου αρέσει η ελληνική κουζίνα (Mou aresei i elliniki kouzina) means “I like Greek cuisine.”
Fay: Got it. Next, how do you say “of course”? That would be useful to know.
Chrissi: We have a few expressions for that. For example, all of these mean “Of course, I’ll come”—Και βέβαια θα έρθω (Kai vevaia tha ertho), Βεβαίως θα έρθω (Vevaios tha ertho), Φυσικά και θα έρθω (Fusika kai tha ertho), Σίγουρα θα έρθω (Sigoura tha ertho), or Θα έρθω σίγουρα (Tha ertho sigoura), Θα έρθω οπωσδήποτε (Tha ertho oposdipote), and Θα έρθω όπως και να’χει. (Tha ertho opos kai na ‘chei.)
Fay: So many!
Chrissi: We are a very enthusiastic people.
Fay: Finally, is there a difference between Σκέφτομαο να τον πάρω τηλέφωνο (Skeftomai na ton paro tilefono) and Σκεφτόμουν να τον πάρω τηλέφωνο (Skeftomoun na ton paro tilefono)?
Chrissi: No. Both mean “I’m thinking of calling him.”
Fay: But σκέφτομαι (skeftomai) is present progressive, and σκεφτόμουν (skeftomoun) is past progressive.
Chrissi: True. But we also do that in English, don’t we? “I’m thinking of going” and “I was thinking of going” can occasionally mean the same thing, can’t they?
Fay: You’re right; they can. With that, let’s move on to grammar!
Chrissi: Sure!

Lesson focus

Fay: The focus of this lesson is of the second declension.
Chrissi: That is, feminine nouns.
Fay: Each declension represents a gender?
Chrissi: Yes. First is masculine, second is feminine, and third is neuter.
Fay: Are feminine nouns as...inconstant as masculine ones?
Chrissi: Not really. But there are a few different endings, and some feminine nouns do gain a syllable when they change to plural.
Fay: So let’s see. What are the endings?
Chrissi: -A as in η μητέρα (i mitera) "the mother", -i as in η ζάχαρη (i zachari) "the sugar", and -ou as in η αλεπού (i alepou) "the fox” are the standard ones. There are also a few really old feminine nouns that end in -i or -os.
Fay: What does their age have to do with it?
Chrissi: These words come straight from ancient Greek, so they form some cases differently than modern nouns do.
Fay: Could we have some examples of that?
Chrissi: Η οθόνη (I othoni) "the screen", a regular feminine noun, becomes των οθονών (ton othonon) in the genitive plural. That’s what we’d expect it to do.
Fay: Okay.
Chrissi: But η σκέψη (i skepsi) "the thought", an archaic word, has the genitive plural των σκέψεων (ton skepseon).
Fay: Weird. In the first case the number of syllables didn’t change, but in the second case it did.
Chrissi: Exactly!
Fay: But there was another strange thing in what you said—that some feminine nouns ending in -os. I thought only masculine nouns could end in -os!
Chrissi: That’s generally true. But as I said, some words come from ancient Greek, so they don’t play by modern rules!
Fay: Can we hear a few feminine nouns that end in -os?
Chrissi: Yes. Η πρόοδος (I proodos) "the progress", η είσοδος (i eisodos) "the entrance", η έξοδος (i eksodos) "the exit", η λεωφόρος (i leoforos) "the avenue", and η μέθοδος (i methodos) "the method” are all feminine nouns that end in -os.
Fay: And how do they behave in the plural?
Chrissi: They keep the same number of syllables in all cases. Οι πρόοδοι/των προόδων (Oi proodoi/ton proodon), οι είσοδοι/των εισόδων (oi eisodoi/ton eisodon), οι έξοδοι/των εξόδων (oi eksodoi/ton eksodon), οι λεωφόροι, των λεωφόρων (oi leoforoi/ton leoforon), and οι μέθοδοι/των μεθόδων (oi methodoi/ton metodon).
Fay: Thank God!
Chrissi: They aren’t so hard. The nouns from ancient Greek may sound a little intimidating, but some of these words are so commonly used that you’ll learn them very quickly!
Fay: And of course we list them all in our PDF, right?
Chrissi: Of course. We’ve even included tables for all the nouns used in our dialogue, as well as some basic rules so people can see the changes they go through.
Fay: Sounds useful! Don’t forget to download it!
Chrissi: Yes. That does it for today’s lesson. Want a free way to build your Greek vocabulary?
Fay: Follow our Greek Word of the Day at GreekPod101.com.
Chrissi: See and hear the Word of the Day…
Fay: …plus sample phrases and sentences.
Chrissi: Get these daily vocabulary alerts on Facebook, Twitter, and the GreekPod101.com blog.
Fay: And add this widget to your own website or blog. They’re available in 35 languages.
Chrissi: Get this easy instructions at GreekPod101.com/greekphrases.
Fay: Bye.
Chrissi: Γεια χαρα! (Geia chara!)

14 Comments

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GreekPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 06:30 PM
Pinned Comment
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What do you prefer: Greek art or Greek cuisine?

GreekPod101.com Verified
Friday at 10:15 AM
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Γεια σου Alain,


Hehe, yeah, I can imagine how this formation looks... exotic!


If you have any other questions, let me know!


Stefania

Team GreekPod101.com

Alain Côté
Thursday at 10:02 PM
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"εδώ και 4 χρόνια", What an interesting formulation! Thanks, Στεφανία, you have shed a little more light on this question. I think more study is needed!


Alain

GreekPod101.com Verified
Thursday at 04:44 PM
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Hi Alain,


Good question!


The use of the perfect tense in English doesn't always render with the perfect tense in Greek. In Greek, the perfect tense refers to an action that started in the past and is finished by now (perfective action, hence we say "perfect" tense). Here the speaker implies that his or her mood is still not good so it's not an action that is finished. Instead the action continues still so the present tense is better in Greek.


A similar example is this:


I have been living in Greece for 4 years.

Ζω στην Ελλάδα εδώ και 4 χρόνια.


I still live in Greece so in Greek, it makes more sense to use the present tense. It's as if Greek focuses on the end of the action (which is not yet finished, still going on), while English focuses on when the action started hence in the past when the action started.


I hope this is clearer now!


Stefania

Team GreekPod101.com

Alain Côté
Thursday at 08:59 AM
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Γα σας Στεφανία!


Can you help me understand why we use είναι in the phrase "Η διάθεση μου τον τελευταίο καιρό δεν είναι καλή", rather than the past form "ήταν"?


Ευχαριστώ

GreekPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 04:17 PM
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Hi Bibiana,


That's a good thing to point out! The fact that you feel something is not right with this sentence means you have developed your language instinct.


So you feel there are two different persons, right (3rd and 2nd)?. That is correct. But is it right or wrong? Well, actually it's right.


In Greek we have some verbs that are called impersonal (like πρέπει). Also some normal verbs may be used impersonally sometimes. Just like χρειάζεται here. In impersonal syntax we have the impersonal verb usually in the 3rd person singular. The meaning of the verb does not refer to a specific person, although in the sentence we may be addressing or referring someone.


It is more like saying:


It is needed patience (or "Patience is needed") in order (for you) to learn a language.


Another example:

Φαίνεται πως θα βρέξει.

It seems it's going to rain.


The "it" part doesn't refer to something or someone in particular. It's impersonal

That's how "χρειάζεται" also works here, impersonally.


Keep in mind that using χρειάζεσαι in the 2nd person would also result in a correct sentence, but with a slightly different meaning:


Χρειάζεται υπομονή για να μάθεις μια ξένη γλώσσα.

It takes patience to learn a language.

The 2nd person in να μάθεις may be referring to someone in particular (you) but it may not (when talking in general).


Χρειάζεσαι υπομονή για να μάθεις μια ξένη γλώσσα.

YOU need patience to learn a language.

(The meaning is very specific.)


Here's a lesson on impersonal verbs if you want to learn more:

https://www.greekpod101.com/pdfs/UI_S1L12_092115_grepod101.pdf


I hope this helps.


Stefania

Team GreekPod101.com

Bibiana
Sunday at 04:23 AM
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Maybe Im looking for mistakes :D or just that Im a detailist... but I dont like the sentence " Χρειάζεται υπομονή για να μάθεις μια ξένη γλώσσα." it looks like it has two persons: "Χρειάζεται" - 3rd person, "μάθεις" - 2nd person... So in my opinion it should be "Χρειάζεσαι"... no?

GreekPod101.com Verified
Friday at 05:51 PM
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Γεια σου Νταν,


Εγώ δεν είμαι σίγουρη αν η ελληνική κουζίνα μου αρέσει περισσότερο από την ελληνική τέχνη ή το αντίθετο. Είναι δύο πολύ διαφορετικά πράγματα για να τα συγκρίνω.:grin:


Γεια χαρά!


Στεφανία

Team GreekPod101.com

Dan Heimowitz
Friday at 09:07 AM
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Μ´αρέσει ελληνική κουζίνα περισσότερη από

την ελληνική τέχνη.


I like Greek food more than Greek art.

Ιουστίνα
Friday at 10:33 PM
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Ευχαριστώ, Στεφανία!

GreekPod101.com Verified
Friday at 01:05 PM
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Γεια σου Ιουστίνα,


πολύ καλή προσπάθεια!


Μου αρέσουν και τα δύο. Και η ελληνική τέχνη και η ελληνική κουζίνα. Δεν θα ήθελα να ζω χωρίς τη μία ή την άλλη.


Stefania,

Team GreekPod101.com