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Lesson Transcript

Fay: Hello, and welcome back to GreekPod101.com - the fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn Greek. Fay here! Beginner Season 1, Lesson 18 - Not Even for an E-mail from Your Greek Friend?
Chrissi: And I’m Chrissi.
Fay: What are we learning in this lesson?
Chrissi: We are looking at the past tense of echo ("to have").
Fay: The conversation takes place at the software company in Athens.
Chrissi: It’s between Petra Gordon and her co-worker, Vaggelis Thomaidis.
Fay: The characters are co-workers so the conversation is in informal language.
Chrissi: Let’s listen.

Lesson conversation

Ευαγγελία Θωμαΐδη: Πέτρα, είχες χρόνο να διαβάσεις το email που σου έστειλα;
Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Δυστυχώς, δεν είχα καθόλου χρόνο. Είχα πολλή δουλειά με το άλλο πρότζεκτ.
Ευαγγελία Θωμαΐδη: Α, ναι, σωστά. Είχατε το μίτινγκ εχτές. Πώς πήγε;
Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Ναι, πολύ καλά. Η Δανάη είχε μερικές πολύ καλές ιδέες.
Fay: Now let’s listen to the slow version.
Ευαγγελία Θωμαΐδη: Πέτρα, είχες χρόνο να διαβάσεις το email που σου έστειλα;
Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Δυστυχώς, δεν είχα καθόλου χρόνο. Είχα πολλή δουλειά με το άλλο πρότζεκτ.
Ευαγγελία Θωμαΐδη: Α, ναι, σωστά. Είχατε το μίτινγκ εχτές. Πώς πήγε;
Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Ναι, πολύ καλά. Η Δανάη είχε μερικές πολύ καλές ιδέες.
Fay: Now with the English translation.
Ευαγγελία Θωμαΐδη: Πέτρα, είχες χρόνο να διαβάσεις το email που σου έστειλα;
Fay: Petra, did you have time to read the email I sent you?
Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Δυστυχώς, δεν είχα καθόλου χρόνο. Είχα πολλή δουλειά με το άλλο πρότζεκτ.
Fay: I'm afraid I didn't have any time at all. I had a lot of work with the other project.
Ευαγγελία Θωμαΐδη: Α, ναι, σωστά. Είχατε το μίτινγκ εχτές. Πώς πήγε;
Fay: Oh, yes, right. You had the meeting yesterday. How did it go?
Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Ναι, πολύ καλά. Η Δανάη είχε μερικές πολύ καλές ιδέες.
Fay: Very well. Danai had some very good ideas.
Fay: You do use email, don’t you?
Chrissi: I use it extensively. But this is not the case with most Greeks.
Fay: But we said in a previous lesson that most people under 45 are online!
Chrissi: Yes, they are. Still, most prefer texting.
Fay: Don’t people use the internet with their phones?
Chrissi: Very few—the cost is too high for non-corporate users. But SMSes are cheap, so…
Fay: SMSes?
Chrissi: Yes. This is what text messages are called in Greece. By the way, that’s the official name for the technology. It stands for “Short Message Service.”
Fay: Really? I didn’t know that. Anyway, how about communication through social networks?
Chrissi: Oh, these are huge in Greece! Most internet users are on Facebook; actually, there are many people who got internet connections just to get on Facebook.
Fay: So I can make Facebook friends from Greece?
Chrissi: Sure. But you have to make your Greek better, so let’s go to our vocabulary!
Fay: Okay!
Fay: First, we have…
Chrissi: είχες [natural native speed].
Fay: You had (singular).
Chrissi: είχες [slowly - broken down by syllable]. είχες [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: διαβάζω [natural native speed].
Fay: To read.
Chrissi: διαβάζω [slowly - broken down by syllable]. διαβάζω [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: στέλνω [natural native speed].
Fay: To send.
Chrissi: στέλνω [slowly - broken down by syllable]. στέλνω [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: δυστυχώς [natural native speed].
Fay: Unfortunately, I'm afraid that…
Chrissi: δυστυχώς [slowly - broken down by syllable]. δυστυχώς [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: είχα [natural native speed].
Fay: I had.
Chrissi: είχα [slowly - broken down by syllable]. είχα [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: καθόλου [natural native speed].
Fay: At all (as in "not at all").
Chrissi: καθόλου [slowly - broken down by syllable]. καθόλου [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: άλλο [natural native speed].
Fay: Other.
Chrissi: άλλο [slowly - broken down by syllable]. άλλο [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: σωστά [natural native speed].
Fay: Correct.
Chrissi: σωστά [slowly - broken down by syllable]. σωστά [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: πάω / πηγαίνω [natural native speed]..
Fay: I go, I am going.
Chrissi: πάω / πηγαίνω [slowly - broken down by syllable]. πάω / πηγαίνω [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: είχε [natural native speed].
Fay: He/she/it had.
Chrissi: είχε [slowly - broken down by syllable]. είχε [natural native speed].
Fay: Let's take a closer look at some of the words and phrases in this lesson. Here’s something that’s been puzzling me for a while. How do you say “I go” in Greek?
Chrissi: Εγώ πηγαίνω. (Ego pigaino.)
Fay: But I’ve heard people saying Πάω για ψώνια (Pao gia psonia) "I go shopping”. Is this πάω (pao) an idiom?
Chrissi: Actually, it’s another version of the verb πηγαίνω (pigaino).
Fay: I see! So ego pao and ego pigaino both mean “I go.”
Chrissi: Or “I’m going.” Remember that in Greek we don’t have separate tenses for simple present and present progressive.
Fay: Right. Can you give us a sentence using both versions of “I go”?
Chrissi: Sure. Listeners, please repeat after me. Πάω στο γραφείο με το Μετρό (Pao sto grafeio me to Metro.)
Fay: “I go to the office on the Metro.”
Chrissi: Πηγαίνω στο γραφείο με το Μετρό (Pigaino sto grafeio me to Metro.)
Fay: Same thing—“I go to the office on the Metro.”
Chrissi: Yes.
Fay: Okay. Now let’s look at another phrase from the dialogue. “I didn’t have any time at all.”
Chrissi: Δεν είχα καθόλου χρόνο. (Den eicha katholou chrono.)
Fay: I know that den makes things negative, but katholou looks like it’s also somehow negative—am I wrong?
Chrissi: Not at all. It’s a stronger negation, used as extensively in Greek as in English.
Fay: Can we have a couple of examples?
Chrissi: Sure. Δεν πήγα καθόλου διακοπές φέτος. (Den piga katholou diakopes fetos.) Listeners, repeat that.
Fay: Which means...?
Chrissi: “I didn’t go anywhere at all for my vacation this year.” See? English adds “at all” to make the negation stronger.
Fay: How about another example?
Chrissi: Δεν άκουσα καθόλου τι μου είπες. (Den akousa katholou ti mou eipes.)
Fay: “I didn’t hear what you said at all.”
Chrissi: Right!
Fay: What does καθόλου (katholou) literally mean?
Chrissi: When used with negatives, it means “any” or “at all.” It’s a quantity adverb.
Fay: Got it. Finally, how do we say “alone” in Greek?
Chrissi: Μόνος (Monos), or μόνος μου (monos mou) with the possessive form, μου (mou), meaning “my.”
Fay: An example?
Chrissi: Θα πάω μόνος μου σινεμά. (Tha pao monos mou sinema.) Try to repeat that.
Fay: “I will go to the cinema alone.”
Chrissi: Yes.
Fay: Let’s move on to our Grammar.

Lesson focus

Fay: In this lesson, our focus is on the past tense of the verb έχω (echo).
Chrissi: Yes. I know they require a lot of grammar…
Fay: …but it’s very important.
Chrissi: Yes. The past tense of the verb έχω (echo) "to have” will be something you use all the time.
Fay: What does that look like?
Chrissi: Είχα (Eicha) "I had”.
Fay: That’s the simple past, right?
Chrissi: Yes. It’s the tense we use when we want to speak about something that happened in the past and It is over now.
Fay: For example?
Chrissi: Εχτές, έκατσα σπίτι (Echtes, ekatsa spiti) "Yesterday I stayed at home”. Listeners, repeat that.
Fay: Another example?
Chrissi: Την παρασκευή πήγα στο κλαμπ (Tin Paraskeui piga sto club) "On Friday I went to the club”.
Fay: So that’s what the past tense looks like. Let’s see some examples with eicha.
Chrissi: I’ll give one for each person.
Fay: Great! Listeners, repeat these sentences after Chrissi. First-person singular—
Chrissi: “I was busy on the weekend.” Είχα δουλειά το Σαββατοκύριακο. (Eicha douleia to Savatokyriako.)
Fay: Second-person singular.
Chrissi: “You had to go to the supermarket.” Είχες να πας στο σούπερ μάρκετ (Eiches na pas sto super market.)
Fay: Third-person singular, masculine.
Chrissi: “Yesterday, the weather was good.” Εχτές είχε καλό καιρό (Echtes eiche kalo kairo.)
Fay: Third-person singular, feminine.
Chrissi: “My teacher had the flu.” Η δασκάλα μου είχε γρίπη. (I daskala mou eiche gripi.)
Fay: Third-person singular, neuter.
Chrissi: “The car had good brakes.” Το αυτοκίνητο είχε καλά φρένα. (To autokinito eiche kala frena.)
Fay: First-person plural.
Chrissi: “We had to go to a wedding.” Είχαμε να πάμε σε έναν γάμο (Eichame na pame se enan gamo)
Fay: Second-person plural.
Chrissi: “You had problems at work.” Είχατε προβλήματα στη δουλειά. (Eichate provlimata sti douleia.)
Fay: Third-person plural, masculine.
Chrissi: “The sailors had shore leave.” Οι ναύτες είχαν άδεια. (Oi nautes eichan adeia.)
Fay: Third-person plural, feminine.
Chrissi: “The nurses had very strict orders.” Οι νοσοκόμες είχαν πολύ αυστηρές οδηγίες. (Oi nosokomes eichan poly austires odigies.)
Fay: Third-person plural, neuter.
Chrissi: “The airplanes had comfortable seats.” Τα αεροπλάνα είχαν ένατ καθίσματα. (Ta aeroplana eichan aneta kathismata.)
Fay: Whew! We just conjugated eicha!
Chrissi: At least the declarative form.
Fay: But the negative and interrogative forms aren’t hard, are they?
Chrissi: No. For the negative, we just add δεν (den) right before the verb.
Fay: So εγώ είχα (ego eicha) "I had” becomes…
Chrissi: Εγώ δεν είχα (Ego den eicha) "I hadn’t”.
Fay: And the interrogative?
Chrissi: The simplest way to turn a statement into a question is to raise the pitch on the accented syllable.
Fay: So Εγώ είχα (Ego eicha) becomes…
Chrissi: Εγώ είχα; (Ego eicha?) In writing, you just add a question mark.
Fay: That pretty much covers είχα (eicha) "I had”.
Chrissi: At least its basic usage.
Fay: But we have some more interesting stuff in the PDF, right?
Chrissi: Yes. And many examples, so please, people, don’t forget to download it!
Fay: Get instant access to all of our language learning lessons.
Chrissi: With any subscription, instantly access our entire library of audio and video lessons.
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Chrissi: Put them on your phone or in other mobile device and listen, watch, and learn anywhere.
Fay: Lessons are organized by level, so progress in order one level at a time.
Chrissi: Or skip around to different levels. It’s up to you.
Fay: Instantly access them all right now at GreekPod101.com. Bye for now.
Chrissi: Γεια χαρα! (Geia chara!)


Please to leave a comment.
😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

GreekPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 06:30 PM
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Did you have time to study Greek yesterday?

GreekPod101.com Verified
Thursday at 01:03 AM
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Γεια σου Λεωνίδα,

κι εμένα μου αρέσουν τα ιταλικά πάρα πολύ. Είχα την τύχει να τα μελετήσω για κάποιο διάστημα. Ευτυχώς μου φάνηκε πολύ εύκολη γλώσσα, γιατί μιλάω ήδη ισπανικά. Τα ελληνικά όμως... είναι άλλη ιστορία!


Team GreekPod101.com

Wednesday at 07:33 PM
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Γεια σου Στεφανία,

η αγαπημένη μου είναι η ιταλική γλώσσα, γιατί είναι πολύ όφορφη... και γιατί μου φέρνει τα περισσότερα λεφτά. :)))

Μα ειλικρινώς είναι δύσκολο να πω ποια γλώσσα είναι η αγαπημένη μου και ποια είναι η λιγότερο αγαπημένη. Μου αρέσει γενικά να μαθαίνω ξένες γλώσσες. Και κάθε γλώσσα έχει την ιδιότιτά της. Για την ελληνική γλώσσα μπορώ να πω ότι είναι αρκετά δύσκολη, γιατί έχει πολλά λόγια που είναι διάφορα από τα ανάλογά τους στις άλλες γλώσσες. Για παράδειγμα:

Αγγλικά: student, international;

Γαλλικά: étudiant, international;

Ιταλικά: studente, internazionale;

Ισπανικά: estudiante, internacional.


Ελληνικά: φοιτητής, διεθνής

Όπως βλέπετε, η διαφορά είναι μεγάλη.

GreekPod101.com Verified
Thursday at 07:36 PM
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Γεια σου Λεωνίδα,

ποια είναι η αγαπημένη σου γλώσσα απ' όλες αυτές και ποια η λιγότερο αγαπημένη σου;!


Team GreekPod101.com

Wednesday at 11:27 PM
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Όχι, δεν είχα χρόνο να μαθαίνω ελληνικά χτες γιατί επαναλάμβανα τα γαλλικά. Κάνω έτσι: την Τρίτη επαναλαμβάνω τα γαλλικά, την Τετάρτη τα ελληνικά, την Πέμπτη τα ισπανικά, την Παρασκευή τα αγγλικά, το Σαββατοκύριακο μαθαίνω ό,τι θέλω και τη Δευτέρα... ξεκουράζομαι απ'όλα αυτά. :))

GreekPod101.com Verified
Thursday at 10:19 PM
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Γεια σου Ιουστίνα!

Η υποτακτική (subjunctive) είναι λίγο δύσκολη για πολλές γλώσσες.

Perhaps it is a bit early to go into detail about this, since you are doing the beginner series, so I will explain briefly what subjunctive is about.

So, verbs have "moods". There are three moods: Indicative (οριστική), Subjunctive (υποτακτική) and Imperative (προστακτική).

Indicative: Shows us what the verb is saying as something that is certain and real.

I eat (τρώω). I ate yesterday (έφαγα χτες). I will eat tomorrow (θα φάω αύριο) >> It is a fact, a certainty. All tenses apply here.

Subjunctive: Shows us what the verb is saying as something that we want to happen or we expect it to happen. Tenses that apply here are only Present, Aorist, and Perfect.

I want to eat (θέλω ΝΑ ΦΑΩ) >> It is not a fact or a certainty yet. I want it, but it doesn't mean I will definitely eat.

Imperative: Shows us what the verb is saying as a command, wish or desire. Tenses that apply here are Present, Aorist and rarely Perfect.

Go (φύγε). Listen to me (άκουσέ με)! Help me God (βοήθησέ με Θεέ μου).

In Greek grammar, the Greek infinitive (different from what you know as English infinitive) and the Greek participle are also considered moods of the verbs. See this (sorry for the bad quality of the picture):


You make subjunctive with either of the following + verb.

ας (let's), να (to), για να (in order to), όταν (when), αν (if) and μη (don't)

So when you want to express the unreal or unfulfilled, you know what to do. Choose one of the above particles and then add the correct verb form. You ask me if there is a tip I can offer you about getting the correct form you need. I am afraid it is not that simple in this case:disappointed:. There are tons of grammar and phonetic rules behind that. Kids learn those at a late stage at Greek schools. I would have to say that using your verbs book will be the best choice at the moment, until you get your ears more trained and you learn naturally and by heart more and more verbs. A process that will take some time, but will definitely come to you :thumbsup:

Now the differences between the tenses in subjunctive form:

-να γράφω (present) = to be writing. It has a more continuous feeling. As in "I like to write all the time" (Μου αρέσει να γράφω)

-να γράψω (aorist) = to write... but just once. As in "I want to write something (and then stop and do something else)" (θέλω να γράψω κάτι)

-να έχω γράψει = to have written.... something that should HAVE BEEN completed already or by a certain point in time (That is why we put the auxiliary verb "have" here). As in "I am supposed to have this written by tomorrow" (Πρέπει να το έχω γράψει αυτό μέχρι αύριο)

I think this is as far as I should go regarding subjunctive. If you have any more questions about it, please let me know!

Take care,


Team GreekPod101.com

Tuesday at 12:15 AM
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Γεια σου και πάλι Στεφανία!

Yes, the book of verbs is very helpful, and with time I'm sure I'll learn most of the forms. What I find most difficult is when to use which form, especially the Subjunctive. I also get confused about which form to use when "combining" verbs (I don't know the correct term) with "να". Could you offer some tips (or point me to a resource) for how to think about verb forms.

Regarding grammar in the current curriculum: from my own experience with my son, it has depended on the teacher. Some have emphasized grammar practice, some have not. There are some schools (usually private ones) that offer Latin and Ancient Greek, which is a great way to learn grammar, but I think they are in the minority.

Τα λέμε,


GreekPod101.com Verified
Monday at 01:48 PM
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Hi Ιουστίνα!

No worries about the grammar. Even with a perfect knowledge of English grammar, I am sure that many verb forms in Greek are difficult to form. Perhaps your French knowledge might prove to be useful here!

It is great that you have a book with verbs! Please make it you Bible!:mrgreen:

I am sure it will have enough material from all types of verbs that will help you conjugate practically every verb that exists!

I am surprised that in your time they removed the English grammar so early from the school's curriculum. Do you know if it is back now?

Anyhow, keep up your good work! It is obvious that you have worked very hard already!


Team GreekPod101.com

Sunday at 12:50 AM
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Αχ!! This is where my lousy grammar education trips me up. In the US around the time I was in secondary school, traditional grammar in English (not to mention Latin and Ancient Greek) had been dropped from the curriculum. What little grammar I know comes from studying French in college. So my problem in the sentence above was mainly that I didn't understand that I needed to use the Past Subjunctive.

Thanks for the great pointers to Greek verb tenses on the internet. I have the book 600 Modern Greek Verbs (1997; not too old, I hope) which is where I found the form of μαγειρεύω that I used above, but I'll bet what's online is even more thorough. But, obviously, even the online resources won't help me if I choose the wrong tense.

Thanks for the explanation and encouragement!


GreekPod101.com Verified
Friday at 03:43 PM
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Γεια σου Ιουστίνα!

Very good! Everything you write makes perfect sense:grin:... however may I "polish" it a bit?

Ναι, μελέτησα ελληνικά χθες για δύο ώρες, άλλα (usually before conjunctions we use comma) μετά άργησα να μαγειρέψω το βραδινό μας.

μετά (after) fits better here than τότε. It is like saying "AFTER I did this, I did that"

I can understand your logic behind your "να μαγείρεψα".... but unfortunately it is not the correct Subjunctive form. Have a look at the Subjunctive Aorist:


As you can see it is not just "να+the normal Aorist"... the verb changes a bit. There are a lot of rules that define how a verb will change in the subjunctive form, but I don't think you should know these details at the moment.

What I can suggest is this: When you are not sure of the conjugation of a verb, you can google the verb you are looking for like this:

μαγειρεύω μαγειρεύεις μαγειρεύει

This will load pages that have all these 3 words and most probably the whole conjugation. Then all you have to do is find the form/tense you need to use!

Slowly slowly you will learn these different forms by memorization.

It is like learning English irregular verbs:

drive, drove, driven etc.

Soon your instinct will get trained and know how to conjugate verbs that belong in the same category, just by remembering only one verb from that category

ex. μαγειρ-εύω > να μαγειρ-έψω (verb in -εύω)

is similar as γυρ-εύω > να γυρ-έψω

Sorry for my long reply! I hope these tips will be of help. Let me know how it goes!


Team GreekPod101.com

Thursday at 11:52 PM
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Ναι, μελέτησα ελληνικά χθες για δύο ώρες άλλα τότε άργησα να μαγείρεψα το βραδινό μας.

Yes, I studied Greek yesterday for two hours but then I was late to cook our dinner.