Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Fay: Hello, and welcome back to GreekPod101.com. Beginner Season 1, Lesson 12 - I'm Okay in Greece; Are You Okay? Fay here.
Chrissi: This is Chrissi.
Fay: What are we learning in this lesson?
Chrissi: We are looking at the verb “eimai’ (to be) in the second person.
Fay: The conversation takes place in Danai’s car.
Chrissi: It’s between Petra and her Greek hosts, Danai and Kostantina.
Fay: The characters are friends so the conversation is in informal language.
Chrissi: Let’s listen.

Lesson conversation

Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Είστε σίγουροι ότι τα πήρατε όλα;
Κωσταντίνα Παπαδοπούλου: Εγώ ναι. Πέτρα, εσύ είσαι εντάξει;
Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Ναι, όλα εντάξει. Μπορούμε να φύγουμε.
Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Πες μου πάλι, μέχρι τι ώρα θα είστε στο γραφείο σήμερα;
Κωσταντίνα Παπαδοπούλου: Ως τις 6.00. Εσύ τι ώρα θα είσαι σπίτι;
Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Θα έχω γυρίσει ως τις 5.30 το αργότερο.
Fay: Now let’s listen to the conversation one time slowly.
Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Είστε σίγουροι ότι τα πήρατε όλα;
Κωσταντίνα Παπαδοπούλου: Εγώ ναι. Πέτρα, εσύ είσαι εντάξει;
Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Ναι, όλα εντάξει. Μπορούμε να φύγουμε.
Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Πες μου πάλι, μέχρι τι ώρα θα είστε στο γραφείο σήμερα;
Κωσταντίνα Παπαδοπούλου: Ως τις 6.00. Εσύ τι ώρα θα είσαι σπίτι;
Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Θα έχω γυρίσει ως τις 5.30 το αργότερο.
Fay: Now let’s listen to the conversation with English translation.
Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Είστε σίγουροι ότι τα πήρατε όλα;
Fay: Are you sure you have everything?
Κωσταντίνα Παπαδοπούλου: Εγώ ναι. Πέτρα, εσύ είσαι εντάξει;
Fay: I'm sure, yes. Petra, are you okay?
Πέτρα Γκόρντον: Ναι, όλα εντάξει. Μπορούμε να φύγουμε.
Fay: Yes, everything is okay. We can leave.
Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Πες μου πάλι, μέχρι τι ώρα θα είστε στο γραφείο σήμερα;
Fay: Tell me again, until what time will you be in the office today?
Κωσταντίνα Παπαδοπούλου: Ως τις 6.00. Εσύ τι ώρα θα είσαι σπίτι;
Fay: Until 6.00. What time will you be home?
Δανάη Παπαδοπούλου: Θα έχω γυρίσει ως τις 5.30 το αργότερο.
Fay: I'll be back by 5.30 at the latest.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Fay: I saw in the PDF that the first law for the equality of sexes passed in the early- to mid-’80s in Greece.
Chrissi: That’s right.
Fay: That’s a little, well, late, isn’t it?
Chrissi: You know, most Greeks won’t admit it, but in many ways the country doesn’t keep step with other European countries.
Fay: But now many women work with equal opportunities as men, right?
Chrissi: To be honest there are still seeds of the old mentality in the minds of many employers. But yes, for the most part, women’s rights in the workplace are the same as men’s.
Fay: And many women choose to follow a career, am I wrong?
Chrissi: Yes, you’re right. Actually most women do; in most families nowadays, both parents work away from home. Of course, this creates various problems, but people find ways to deal with them.
Fay: Okay. Let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
VOCAB LIST
Fay: First…
Chrissi: είστε [natural native speed].
Fay: Are.
Chrissi: είστε [slowly - broken down by syllable]. είστε [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: σίγουροι [natural native speed].
Fay: Sure, certain.
Chrissi: σίγουροι [slowly - broken down by syllable]. σίγουροι [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: ότι [natural native speed].
Fay: That.
Chrissi: ότι [slowly - broken down by syllable]. ότι [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: εντάξει [natural native speed].
Fay: Okay.
Chrissi: εντάξει [slowly - broken down by syllable]. εντάξει [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: μπορούμε [natural native speed].
Fay: We can.
Chrissi: μπορούμε [slowly - broken down by syllable]. μπορούμε [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: όλα [natural native speed]
Fay: All.
Chrissi: όλα [slowly - broken down by syllable]. όλα [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: πάλι [natural native speed].
Fay: Again.
Chrissi: πάλι [slowly - broken down by syllable]. πάλι [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: μέχρι [natural native speed].
Fay: Until.
Chrissi: μέχρι [slowly - broken down by syllable]. μέχρι [natural native speed].
Fay: Next…
Chrissi: αργότερο [natural native speed].
Fay: Latest.
Chrissi: αργότερο [slowly - broken down by syllable]. αργότερο [natural native speed].
KEY VOCABULARY AND PHRASES
Fay: Let's take a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson. First of all, what does Αργότερο (argotero) mean?
Chrissi: Literally it means “slower” or “slowest,” but it is never used this way. The phrase το αργότερο (to argotero) in our dialogue means “at the latest.”
Fay: So if I want to say “I’ll be home by 6:00 at the latest”?
Chrissi: Θα είμαι στο σπίτι, το αργότερο ως τις 6:00 (Tha eimai sto spiti, to argotero os tis 6:00) or Θα είμαι στο σπίτι, ως τις 6:00 το αργότερο (Tha eimai sto spiti, os tis 6:00 to argotero)—changing the order makes no difference in meaning. Try to repeat this sentence. Θα είμαι στο σπίτι, το αργότερο ως τις 6:00. (Tha eimai sto spiti, to argotero os tis 6:00.)
Fay: Got it. So το αργότερο (to argotero) is an idiom.
Chrissi: Yes. So better learn it as a stock phrase. A time word [hour, day, week, month, year] plus το αργότερο (to argotero) means “by then at the latest.”
Fay: Other examples?
Chrissi: Το αργότερο ως τον Αύγουστο (To argotero os ton Augousto) means “By August at the latest,” and το αργότερο ως την Κυριακή (to argotero os tin Kyriaki) means “by Sunday at the latest.” Repeat those, too!
Fay: Right. Now about oti.
Chrissi: Very useful word! It means “that” in the sense of “Did you know that Greek is a very old language?”
Fay: And how it is used?
Chrissi: Είπα ότι θα πάω (Eipa oti tha pao) means “I said that I would go.” Listeners, repeat this!
Fay: Another example?
Chrissi: Άκουσα ότι θα βρέξει (Akousa oti tha brekse) means “I heard that it will rain.” Repeat this, too.
Fay: Finally, what does μέχρι (mechri) mean?
Chrissi: It means “until.” But in Greek we use it both in the sense of “until Monday” and in the sense of “to”. Μέχρι τη Δευτέρα (Mechri ti Deutera) means “until Monday.” And μέχρι τις εννέα (mechri tis ennea) means “until nine.”
Fay: And for the other usage?
Chrissi: Πάω μέχρι την Αθήνα (Pao mechri tin Athina) means “I go to Athens” and not farther. And Ήρθε μέχρι εδώ ( Irthe mechri edo) means “He came up to here.”
Fay: I think we covered these. Let’s move on to our main Grammar Point.
Chrissi: Okay!

Lesson focus

Fay: What is our Grammar Point for this lesson?
Chrissi: The second-person singular and plural of the verb “to be.” Εσύ είσαι (Esy eisai) and Εσείς είσαστε (Eseis eisaste) or εσείς είστε (eseis eiste).
Fay: Just a moment there. There are two versions of the second-person plural?
Chrissi: Yes, but they are completely interchangeable!
Fay: So if I want to say “You are brothers”?
Chrissi: Εσείς είσαστε αδέρφια (Eseis eisaste aderfia) or Εσείς είστε αδέρφια (Eseis eiste aderfia). Both are correct.
Fay: Another example—“You are friends”?
Chrissi: Είσαστε φίλοι (Eisaste filoi) or Είστε φίλοι (Eiste filoi).
Fay: What happened to the eseis?
Chrissi: As we mentioned when discussing the first person of the verb “to be,” we dropped the pronoun. That’s a very common thing to do in Greek, although it is not 100% correct.
Fay: For the singular, too?
Chrissi: Yes.
Fay: For example, if I want to say “You are my friend”?
Chrissi: Είσαι φίλος μου (Eisai filos mou). Or Εσύ είσαι φίλος μου (Esy eisai filos mou) with a pronoun.
Fay: How about “You are Greek”?
Chrissi: Είσαι Έλληνας (Eisai Ellinas). Or Εσύ είσαι Έλληνας (Esy eisai Ellinas.)
Fay: Pretty straightforward. Εσύ είσαι (Esy eisai) and Εσείς είσαστε (Eseis eisaste).
Chrissi: Or εσείς είστε (eseis eiste)!
Fay: Right! So we are finished?
Chrissi: There’s one more thing we should mention now, though it doesn’t specifically concern the verb eimai.
Fay: Which is?
Chrissi: As in many other languages, the second-person plural can be used as a polite second-person singular.
Fay: That’s very important!
Chrissi: Yes. If I want to speak to someone older than I am, I won’t say Εσύ είσαι Έλληνας (Esy eisai Ellinas); I’ll say Εσείς είστε Έλληνας (Eseis eiste Ellinas).
Fay: The noun Έλληνας (Ellinas) remains singular, but the verb goes from singular to plural.
Chrissi: Exactly! If you were speaking to the president of the United States, you wouldn’t say Εσύ είσαι ο Πρόεδρος (Esy eisai o Proedros). You would say Εσείς είστε ο Πρόεδρος (Eseis eiste o Proedros) “You are the president”.
Fay: To recap, we have εσύ είσαι (esy eisai), meaning “you are (singular)”...
Chrissi: Right!
Fay: And we have εσείς είστε (eseis eiste), meaning either “you two”…
Chrissi: …or three or more…
Fay: …right, or meaning “You, Mr. President”…
Chrissi: …or anyone else whom we want to address politely.
Fay: I think I have it straightened out now. Shall we leave it at that?
Chrissi: Yes. But we should remind the people listening that the PDF contains all these and much more. Want a free way to build your Greek vocabulary?
Fay: Follow our Greek Word of the Day at GreekPod101.com.
Chrissi: See and hear the Word of the Day…
Fay: Plus sample phrases and sentences.
Chrissi: Get these daily vocabulary alerts on Facebook, Twitter, and the GreekPod101.com blog.
Fay: And add this widget to your own website or blog. They’re available in 35 languages.
Chrissi: Get these easy instructions at GreekPod101.com/greekphrases.
Fay: Bye!
Chrissi: Γεια (Geiá)!

31 Comments

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GreekPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 06:30 PM
Pinned Comment
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I'm OK today...! How are you?

GreekPod101.com Verified
Monday at 11:32 PM
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Hi Julia,


Thank you for asking this.


Έχω is an auxiliary verb in Greek. By itself, it means "to have" but it can also be used as a verb formation element in certain tenses, the perfective tenses specifically just like in English. For example:


I have eaten. > Έχω φάει.

I had eaten. > Είχα φάει.

I will have eaten. > Θα έχω φάει.


This formation uses the verb έχω (conjugated) + what we call "infinitive" in Greek which is a non-conjugated verb form ending in -ει /-εί that functions differently from an English infinitive.


In the dialogue, we have "Θα έχω γυρίσει" which literally means "I will have returned", although it has been translated in a different way to sound more natural in English.


Keep in mind that there are other expressions that are formed with this auxiliary verb that don't necessarily mean "to have", for example:


Έχω να πάω στον γιατρό. > I have to go to the doctor.

Here έχω να + verb means "to have to..." as in "must".


Έχει αέρα/υγρασία. > It's windy/humid. (when talking about the weather)


I hope this helps!


All the best,


Stefania

Team GreekPod101.com

Julia
Sunday at 09:59 PM
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Hi,


I would like to know why the last sentence used έχω? How can I use έχω other than meaning "to have"?


Thanks!

GreekPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 09:03 AM
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Hi Santi,


Good question... you're making it tough for me to answer because there are no rules about these two 😅! I'll try, nevertheless.


I think for these two words, it's better to examine their differences to understand them better.


1. The first main difference between the two is that ξανά can be used as a prefix of verbs to indicate repeated action whereas πάλι can't really do that:


ξανά + αγαπώ = to love again

ξανά + βλέπω = to see again

ξανά + λέω = to say again

ξανά + κοιμάμαι = to sleep again


BUT NOT παλιαγαπώ, παλιβλέπω, παλιλέω, παλικοιμάμαι!


With verbs, ξανά usually needs to follow them. If you want to place it before them, then you are better off to join them so you can sound more natural.


Δεν θα αγαπήσω ξανά ποτέ! → Δεν θα ξαναγαπήσω ποτέ! NOT Δεν θα ξανά αγαπήσω!

Χαίρομαι που σε βλέπω ξανά! → Χαίρομαι που σε ξαναβλέπω! NOT Χαίρομαι που σε ξανά βλέπω.

Θα το πω ξανά. → Θα το ξαναπώ. ΝΟΤ Θα το ξανά πω.

Θέλω να κοιμηθώ ξανά. → Θέλω να ξανακοιμηθώ. ΝΟΤ Θέλω να ξανά κοιμηθώ.


Πάλι CAN be used as a prefix but only in its ancient form πάλιν- and mainly in scholarly or scientific words denoting either repetition, a return to a previous state, or moving backwards. These words are not very common:

https://screencast.com/t/eKJw4Cu2G


2. After some thought, I think I've come up to the conclusion that this very subtle nuance of πάλι regarding a movement in reverse or the past is the main difference between πάλι and ξανά. Ξανά doesn't look back into the past, it looks forward, into the future. It simply adds something again.


When we say "again" with πάλι, this is done looking into the past. So in a way, it stresses subconsciously that a certain action was done in the past and now we just want it to repeat. Πάλι can be more emotionally charged because of that. It is often used to express discontent. For example:


Πάλι μακαρόνια θα φάμε; Are we eating pasta again? (We had pasta two days ago!)

Πάλι ξύπνησες νωρίς! You woke up early again! (You've been waking up early lately!)


Πάλι expresses this frustration much better than ξανά.


3. Also, notice how πάλι can go in the above case before the verb but it could also go after it. So it's a bit more flexible.

Μακαρόνια θα φάμε πάλι;

Νωρίς ξύπνησες πάλι.


4. Πάλι often comes together with και for emphasis and forms the phrase και πάλι which roughly means "yet again" (see how it's tied up again to the past and being sentimental about it?) For example:


Σε πέντε μέρες θα είμαστε και πάλι μαζί. In five days, we'll be together (yet) again.

Nα ξαναρθείτε και πάλι. Come back again (yet one more time).

Και πάλι έλα! (Please do) come back (yet) again!

Bγήκε και πάλι πρόεδρος. He got elected president again (yet one more time).


5. Πάλι has a few more extra uses which ξανά doesn't but I won't go into details. You can see some examples here:

https://bit.ly/2V8NJNa

And compare them with some examples on ξανά:

https://bit.ly/37Wxx6L


I hope this information is helpful. It's just my personal point of view though.


Cheers,


Stefania

Team GreekPod101.com

Santi
Saturday at 11:50 AM
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So when do you use πάλι and when do you use ξανά?

GreekPod101.com Verified
Thursday at 07:58 AM
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Γεια σου Στίβεν,


Πολύ ωραία! Χαίρομαι. Πάντα έτσι!


Στεφανία

Team GreekPod101.com

Stephen
Wednesday at 06:31 AM
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Είμαι υπέροχα, ευχάριστο. Ο ήλιος λάμπει, και έτσι είμαι!


Γεια χαρά!

GreekPod101.com Verified
Monday at 11:32 PM
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Γεια σου Jan S,


Να 'σαι καλά.

Είμαστε εδώ για σε βοηθήσουμε όπως μπορούμε, εφόσον το χρειάζεσαι.

Αναμένω την επόμενη ερώτησή σου.


Τα καλύτερα,

Νεκτάριος

Team GreekPod101.com

Jan S
Sunday at 06:57 PM
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Νεκτάριε, σε ευχαριστώ πάρα πολύ για την απάντησή σου!

GreekPod101.com Verified
Saturday at 09:54 PM
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Hello Jan S,


Thank you for your comment.


"Μέχρι τη Δευτέρα" means "until/up to Monday". Therefore, Monday is included, for example, if you say about a deadline.

ex. Πρέπει να φέρεις την αίτηση μέχρι την Δευτέρα. (You should bring the application until Monday)

In Greek, someone undertands that the deadline is on Monday.

As it was said in lesson, you can also use "αργότερο". In that case you emphasize it.

ex. Πρέπει να φέρεις την αίτηση το αργότερο τη Δευτέρα. (You should bring the application on Monday at the latest)

"Το μαγάζι είναι ανοιχτό μέχρι/ως τη Δευτέρα" and "Το μαγάζι είναι ανοιχτό μέχρι και την Δευτέρα" have the same meaning in Greek. Monday is the last day open. You can use though the second sentence, if you want to be 100% sure that the listener will not misunderstand.


We are here, for any other question.


The best,

Nektarios

Team GreekPod101.com

Jan S
Monday at 01:40 AM
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In this lesson we have the expression "Μέχρι τη Δευτέρα". Strictly I would interpret that as 'up till but not including Monday' e.g.


Το μαγάζι είναι ανοιχτό μέχρι την Δευτέρα = The shop is open until Monday (Sunday is the last day open).


Will 'and including' be implied in daily speech? Is 'Το μαγάζι είναι ανοιχτό μέχρι και την Δευτέρα' the better way to express that the shop is also open on Monday?


Να΄στε καλά!